Publications

One of Mangold International's goals is to spread knowledge about studies on behavior among the research community. That's why we have created this platform which allows researchers to publish their results.

Child, Infant and Adult Studies

Coaches and Clients in Action: A Sequential Analysis of Interpersonal Coach and Client Behavior

Authors: Ianiro, P.M., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N. & Kauffeld, S. (2014)

 

Despite calls for studying interaction processes in coaching, little is known about the link between coach-client interactions and coaching success. In particular, interpersonal behavior in coaching remains unexplored, although it is considered highly relevant to social relationships and interaction outcomes. This study takes first steps to adress this gap.

 

The study examines the dynamics of coaches' and clients' interpersonal behavior based on the two basic dimensions affiliation and dominance. Furthermore, the link between emergent interpersonal behavior patterns and coaching outcomes is investigated. To this end, a total of 11,095 behavioral acts nested in 30 coach-client dyads were videotaped and analyzed.

 

Sequential analysis showed that reciprocal friendliness patterns were positively linked to working alliance. Coaches' dominant-friendly interaction behavior particularly activated clients, in terms of showing dominance during the coaching interaction process. Clients' dominance was linked to their overall goal attainment.

 

The results highlight the importance of interpersonal behavior for coaching success. Specifically, the findings suggest that dominance interaction patterns are context- and relation-specific, offering an explanation for contradicting empirical studies on interpersonal dominance. For coaches, the study implies that high awareness for interpersonal signals can help establish a positive atmosphere and activate clients' dominance.

 

This empirical study uses behavior observation and interaction analysis to understand the interpersonal dynamics during coaching sessions.

 

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Methodological Considerations for Investigating the Microdynamics of Social Interaction Development

Authors: de Barbaro, K., Forster, D., Johnson, C.M. & Deak, G.O. (2013)

 

Infants are biologically prepared to learn complex behaviors by interacting in dynamic, responsive social environments. Although the importance of interactive social experiences has long been recognized, current methods for studying complex multimodal interactions are lagging. This paper outlines a systems approach for characterizing fine-grained temporal dynamics of developing social interaction. We provide best practices for capturing, coding, and analyzing interaction activity on multiple-temporal scales, from fractions of seconds (e.g. gaze shifts), to minutes (e.g. coordinated play episodes), to weeks or months (e.g. developmental change).

 

IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 5(3), 258-270

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Assessing Motivational Interviewing 2.0: An illustration of software-supported coding schemes

Authors: Klonek, F., Kauffeld, S. (2014)

 

Scholars in Motivational Interviewing (MI) have developed several coding schemes to assess treatment adherence, client language, and sequential dynamics. Traditionally, these coding schemes have been administered with paper and pencil. The presentation introduces implementations of software-supported MI coding schemes and discusses how software-implementation facilitates coding work, while still capturing the sequential timed-event data of the dyadic interaction. Furthermore, it is presented how coding instruments can be economized by means of a thin behavior slicing procedure. Data originated from a study with MI trained interviewers who discussed sustainable use of environmental resources as a target behavior with their respective clients. First, it is presented how branchedchain coding can be used to familiarize inexperienced observers with the MI Skill Code. Second, it is calculated two observer agreement measures of fourteen double-coded sessions for the MI Treatment Integrity Code (MITI): Time-unit kappa and Intraclass correlation. Third, the researchers extracted thin behavior slices (ten minutes) and compared their MITI code statistics with the entire session. Results show that Kappa indices are more conservative reliability estimates than Intraclass correlations. Furthermore, thin behavior slicing revealed that only 10-minutes can provide accurate estimates for MITI verbal behavior codes. The researchers discuss costs and benefits of software-supported coding schemes.

 

Presentation at the ICMI International Conference on Motivational Interviewing, Amsterdam, June 16-18, 2014.

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Comparison of Emotion Co-Regulation between Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Families of Typically Developing Children

Authors: Goldberg, W., Guo, Y., Gutierrez, S., Merrell, S., House, S., Fraher, T., Tsai, S., Kim, S., Garcia, M., Garibay, C., Martinez, P. Davia, S. (2014)

 

Poster presented at UROP, University of California, Irvine, May 2014

 

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Dynamics of Resistance to Change: A Sequential Analysis of Change Agents in Action

Authors: Klonek, F., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Kauffeld, S. (2014)

 

Despite consensus that successful change management depends on how change is communicated to employees, the dynamic communication process between change agents and recipients remains largely unexplored. We discuss how change language can capture recipients’ resistance to and readiness for change, in terms of change versus sustain talk, and adopt a coding instrument from clinical psychology (Motivational Interviewing Skill Code, MISC). We explore whether autonomy-restrictive change agent behaviors may contribute to resistance to change. In a preliminary study, we demonstrate the applicability of the MISC for studying ambivalence in change-related interactions. Next, in a quantitative study of 28 dyadic interactions from a student sample, we examine how change agent behaviors elicit recipients’ resistance during the interaction flow, using lag sequential analysis. Our findings show that autonomy-restrictive agent behaviors evoke sustain talk. Recipients’ sustain talk in turn evokes autonomy-restrictive agent behavior. We discuss implications for conceptualizing resistance to change as a dynamically emerging conversational construct and point out practical implications for change agents.

 

Link to Article

Watching how they are talking - Analyzing verbal behavior in two non-residential building projects to save energy by means of user participation

Authors: Klonek, F., Kauffeld, S., Plesser, S. & Görtgens, A. (2014)

 

When organizations implement energy saving measures, building users are not always ready for the organisational change process (By, 2007). While user motivation is crucial for facilitating the change process, resistance to change inhibits well-intended measures. Many organizations use participatory interventions in order to increase participation and motivation of building users (Kauran, 2013; Griesel, 2004). We propose a behavioral approach to measure motivation and resistance to change in terms of the observable verbal behavior: While “change talk” expresses the willingness to adopt behavioral changes, “sustain talk” expresses resistance and signals that any efforts to promote behavior change are worthless. Our approach focuses on the dynamic interactions between change agents and building users. Therefore, we apply interaction analysis – a scientific procedure that allows investigating communication exchange on an utterance-by-utterance level (Mangold, 2010). We show that this method is particularly useful to understand how to increase users’ participation and user motivation within energy saving projects.

 

Poster presented at the BEHAVE Conference, Oxford, September 2014

 

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Development of a Culturally Sensitive Research Methodology in Early Communication and Language Development

Authors: Frank, B., Polzin, C., Semkiwa, J. & Lüdtke, U.

 

Poster presented at the 5th East African Conference on Communication Disability, Mombasa, Kenya, September 2013

 

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From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement During Early Childhood

Authors: Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D.F., Nelson, P.B.

 

This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother–child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner, ), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to become more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children's symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across 4 years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver's actions.

 

Link to Article

Prenatal programming of emotion regulation: Neonatal reactivity as a differential susceptibility factor moderating the outcome of prenatal cortisol levels

Authors: Bolten, M., Nast, I., Skrundz, M., Stadler, C., Hellhammer, D., Meinlschmidt, G.

 

 

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation during pregnancy is linked to dysfunctional behavioral outcomes in the offspring. According to Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis, individuals vary regarding their developmental plasticity. Translating the differential susceptibility hypothesis to the field of fetal programming, we hypothesize that infants' temperament, as the constitutionally based reactivity to stimulation, moderates prenatal environmental effects on postnatal emotion regulation.

Maternal HPA axis activity and stress-reactivity during pregnancy was estimated, by measuring cortisol concentrations in saliva, collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after awakening and in blood, collected during a laboratory stress test (Trier Social Stress Test), respectively. Newborns reactivity to stimulation was evaluated between postnatal day 10 and 14 using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Infant's self-quieting-activities, as an indicator of emotion regulation, were evaluated at the age of six months during the still face paradigm.

Maternal cortisol reactivity to stress during pregnancy was associated with infant's emotion regulation at the age of six months. Whereas cortisol levels after awakening in mid and late pregnancy were not associated with emotion regulation. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that in interaction with neonatal reactivity, both, prenatal maternal HPA activity as well as prenatal maternal HPA reactivity to stress predicted emotion regulation.

The findings indicate that newborns' reactivity to stimulation is moderating the association between prenatal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids and emotion regulation in infancy. Data suggests that temperamental characteristics of the newborn are a relevant differential susceptibility factor with regard to prenatal effects on emotion regulation.

 

Link to Article

From Action to Interaction: Infant Object Exploration and Mothers' Contigent Responsiveness

Authors: Tamis-LeMonda, C.S., Kuchirko, Y., Tafuro, L.

 

We examined maternal contingent responsiveness to infant object exploration in 190 mother-infant pairs from diverse cultural communities. Dyads were video-recorded during book-sharing and play when infants were 14 mo. Researchers coded the temporal onsets and offsets of infant and mother object exploration and mothers' referential (e.g., “That's a bead”) and regulatory (e.g., “Stop it”) language. The times when infant or mother were neither exploring objects nor communicating were classified as “off task.” Sequential analysis was used to examine whether certain maternal behaviors were more (or less) likely to follow infant object exploration relative to chance, to one another, and to times when infants were off task. Mothers were more likely to explore objects and use referential language in response to infant object exploration than to use regulatory language or be off task, and maternal behaviors were reduced in the context of infants being off task. Additionally, mothers coordinated their object exploration with referential language specifically; thus, mothers' responses to infants were didactic and multimodal. Infant object exploration elicits reciprocal object exploration and informative verbal input from mothers, illustrating the active role infants play in their social experiences.

 

Link to Article

Individualized Behavioral Assessments and Maternal Ratings of Mastery Motivation in Mental Age-Matched Toddlers with and without Motor Delay

Author: Wang, Pei-Jung, Morgan, George A., Hwang, Ai-Wen und Liao, Hua-Fang

 

 

Mastery motivation is a precursor of future developmental outcomes. Evidence about whether toddlers with motor delay have lower mastery motivation is inconclusive.

 

The purpose of his study was to examine differences between mental age-matched toddlers with and without motor delay on various mastery motivation indicators. A mental age- and sex-matched case-control study was performed. Twenty-two children with motor delay, aged 23 to 47 months, and 22 childen who were developing typically, aged 15 to 29 months, were recruited. Persistence and mastery pleasure were measured with behavioral tasks that were moderately challenging for each child and with maternal ratings using the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ). The DMQ was rated by each child's mother based on her perception of her child's motivation. Two types of structured tasks (a puzzle and a cause-effect toy selected to be moderately challenging for each child) were administered in a laboratory setting and recorded on videos. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to examine group differences in persistence and mastery pleasure.

 

Children with motor delay were rated lower on DMQ persistence than the typically developing group, but they did not show significantly lower persistence on the structured tasks. There were no significant differences in mastery pleasure between the two groups on either measure.

Toddlers with motor delay did not show longer persistence and pleasure when given tasks that were moderately challenging; however, their mothers tended to view them as having lower motivation. Clinicans and parents should provide appropriately challenging tasks to increase children's success and motivation.

 

Link to Article

 


Early Dialogs between Mother and Infant. A Study on the Situation of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants in the Process of Early Bildung

Author: Horsch, Ursula

 

 

From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their infant. They introduce as well other people as the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogical way. Proceeding hand in hand they pass on basic dialogical competences which are responsible for the development of Early Bildung. The research project Dialogic Development of Infants (Horsch et al. since 2004) addresses the broad dialogic development of parents and infants within the first 18 months of life. Our objective is to describe these preverbal dialogs and their relevance for processes of Bildung.

The following presented research project is realized in Germany, but we just start at SEKOMU with this study. So we are able to take the pictures out of the SEKOMU project.

Particular emphasis will be placed on these dialogic elements: vocalisation of the infants, dialogic echo and greeting behaviour of the parents and motherese/fatherese. The empirical date is derived from a longitudinal study within the first 18 months of the infant´s life. The data is collected monthly by video recording in a natural setting. Computerized analyses (interact) are used for the evaluation of the data to study the correlations among the dialogic elements.

The significant correlations of infants with normal hearing are compared with the data of the deaf or hard of hearing infants and are discussed in relation to aspects of Bildung.

 

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Driving and Hindering Forces in Group Discussions: Analyzing Change and Sustain Talk in a Software Engineering Project

Author: Paulsen, H., Klonek, F.E., Meinecke, A., Schneider, K., Liskin, O. & Kauffeld, S.

 

Poster presented at the INTER.COM Symposium, Braunschweig, 2013.

 

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Act4leadership: Introducing a new coding scheme for analyzing leader-follower-interactions

Author: Meinecke, A.L., Wachsmuth, D. & Kauffeld, S.

 

Poster presented at the INTER.COM Symposium, Braunschweig, 2013.

 

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A Sequential Analysis of Procedural Meeting Communication: How Teams Facilitate Their Meetings

Author: Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Allen, J.A., Kauffeld, S.

 

How do teams facilitate their own meetings? Unmanaged (or free) social interaction often leads to poor decision-making, unnecessary conformity, social loafing, and ineffective communication processes, practices, and products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential benefits of procedural communication in team meetings. The role of procedural communication, defined as verbal behaviors that structure group discussion to facilitate goal accomplishment, was examined in 59 team meetings from 19 organizations. Meeting behaviors were videotaped and coded. Lag sequential analysis revealed that procedural meeting behaviors are sustained by supporting statements within the team interaction process. They promote proactive communication (e.g., who will do what and when) and significantly inhibit dysfunctional meeting behaviors (e.g., losing the train of thought, criticizing others, and complaining). These patterns were found both at lag1 and lag2. Furthermore, the more evenly distributed procedural meeting behaviors were across team members, the more team members were satisfied with their discussion processes and outcomes. For practice, these findings suggest that managers should encourage procedural communication to enhance meeting effectiveness, and team members should share the responsibility of procedurally facilitating their meetings.

 

Link to Article

Do I need, am I able to... and do I even want to change? Which potential does Motivational Interviewing offer for organizations

Author: Klonek, F.E., Kauffeld, S.

 

Organizational, team or individual change projects are highly dependent upon the motivation of the affected employees. Motivational Interviewing (MI) offers a promising method to initiate and accompany change management projects. Evidence from clinical psychology shows that MI stimulates change by evoking change talk and reducing sustain talk - two psycholinguistic constructs. In this paper, we want to discuss - based on the existing research and an expert workshop - benefits and possible applications of MI for organizations. By means of three examples from interaction analysis, we can show how coaches, facilitators and executives can implement principles of MI. Finally, we introduce two German versions of MI observation methods that help to objectively assess motivational interaction processes. Preliminary data shows that there is still a lack of motivational techniques within the observed interaction processes.

 

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Physiological regulation in infants of women with a mood disorder: examining associations with maternal symptoms and stress

Author: Johnson, K.C., Brennan, P.A., Stowe, Z.N., Leibenluft, E. & Newport, D.J.

 

The offspring of mothers with mood disorders may evidence increased behavioral problems as early as preschool; however, no study to date has examined psychophysiological characteristics during infancy, particularly among offspring of mothers diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Elucidating psychobiological mechanisms of risk early in development is critical to inform prevention and early intervention efforts.

This study compared physiological and behavioral responsivity in 6-month-old infants (N = 329) of mothers with lifetime histories of bipolar disorder (BD, n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 244), or no history of Axis I disorders (CTL, n = 41). Infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured in a laboratory stressor paradigm. Measures of infant affect and behavior during mother–infant interaction, current maternal depressive symptoms, and exposure to stressful life events were examined with respect to diagnostic group and RSA.

Groups did not differ in baseline RSA or infant affect measures. However, during the stressor task, infants of mothers with BD evidenced increases in RSA, while infants of MDD and CTL mothers evidenced decreases in RSA. Though levels of postnatal stress and current levels of maternal depressive symptoms differed among groups, neither of these factors predicted infant psychophysiological responses.

At 6 months of age, infants of mothers with BD show differences in psychophysiological regulation. These differences cannot be accounted for by perinatal outcome, current maternal depressive symptoms, or exposure to stressful life events, and thus may reflect endophenotypic markers of psychopathological risk.

 

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The joint role of trained, untrained, and observed actions at the origins of goal recognition

Author: Gerson, S.A., Woodward, A.L.

 

Abstract: Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life.

 

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Twelve-month "social revolution" emerges from mother-infant sensory-motor coordination: A longitudinal investigation

Author: de Barbaro, K., Johnson, C., Deak, G.O.

 

Abstract:

Previous accounts of the development of triadic attention identify a ‘‘curious’’ shift around nine to twelve months. We introduce a novel approach inspired by distributed and embodied cognition frameworks. In a longitudinal study of five mother-infant dyads, videos of home play interactions were recorded over the infants’ first year. We scrutinized the real-time organization of mother-infant sensorimotor activity, including the targets of hands, gaze, and mouth, as the dyad members attended to one another and
to toys. We identified a pervasive developmental pattern: At four months, infants converged all sensory modalities on objects introduced by the mother. From six to twelve months, infants showed increasing decoupling of hands and eyes and increasingly elaborate sequences in multi -object play. Concurrently, dyads engaged in increasingly elaborate social exchanges (e.g., turn-taking) as mothers adapted to infants’ sensorimotor skills. We therefore theorize that triadic attention emerges not as a novel form of social cognition but as a continuous product of sensorimotor development, scaffolded by parents’ expanding social actions.

 

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Micro-analysis of infant looking in a naturalistic social setting: Insights from biologically based models of attention

Author: de Barbaro, K., Chiba, A., Deak, G.O.

 

Abstract:

A current theory of attention posits that several micro-indices of attentional vigilance are dependent on activation of the locus coeruleus, a brainstem nucleus that regulates cortical norepinephrine activity (Aston-Jones et al., 1999). This theory may account for many findings in the infant literature, while highlighting important new areas for research and theory on infant attention. We examined the visual behaviors of n = 16 infants (6–7 months) while they attended to multiple spatially distributed
targets in a naturalistic environment. We coded four measures of attentional vigilance, adapted from studies of norepinergic modulation of animal attention: rate of fixations, duration of fixations, latency to reorientation, and target ‘hits’. These measures showed a high degree of coherence in individual infants, in parallel with findings from animal studies. Results also suggest that less vigilant infants showed greater habituation to the trial structure and more attentiveness to less salient stimuli during periods of high attentional competition. This pattern of results is predicted by the Aston-Jones model of attention, but could not be explained by the standard information processing model.

 

Link to article

When is the "chemistry" right in Coaching?

Publication with Coach - Client Relationship

Author: Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld, Dipl. Psych. Patrizia Ianiro, Dipl. Psych. Carsten Schermuly

 

There is growing evidence that coaching is effective. However, little is known about the process variables critical for coaching success. Friendliness, openness and empathy are important. However, they do not necessarily lead to a sustainable and trusting relationship between coach and client.

 

A recent publication by Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld, Patrizia Ianiro and Carsten Schermuly examines the contribution of the behavioral dimensions “affiliation” and “dominance” for a positive coaching relationship and coaching success. Affiliation includes the friendliness. Dominance is the sovereign, self-confident attitude that the client expects of the coach. The client wants to be led by the coaching process, which is also required by the coach. But how dominant should the coach be?

 

For the study, coaching sessions were evaluated by video analysis with the Mangold INTERACT Software. The analysis shows that coach and client do not differ much from each other concerning affiliation dimensions – both show a similar kind.
There were major differences in dominance behavior. The study concludes that coaching will be particularly successful when coach and client show a similar dominance behavior. Although the client wants to be led, he is also aware of his own essential contribution in the success of the coaching. He would like to be acknowledged at “eye-level” with the coach. This contributes to the fact that the relationship is perceived by the client as being particularly constructive and successful.

 

Link to article in the Journal "Coaching"

Study with Mangold INTERACT: User-Related Energy Saving Potential

Author: Dipl. Psych. Florian Klonek, Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld

 

Reduce Energy Demand - without extensive investments

Large investments are not always necessary in saving energy, especially in large service companies (e.g. Hospitals and Universities). Up to 20% of the energy can be saved during daily work through energy-saving behavior as well as through technical and organizational operations. "Re-Co - Smart Energy Saving" is an EU-funded pilot project involving partners in 8 countries that examines these savings.

 

The Human Factor

The motivation of potential users in the implementation of energy saving is a key factor. One part of the Re-Co project is the development of a communication concept which involves users to work together on behavioral change measures. The goal is to create awareness of an "energy efficient" working day - through long-term changes in behavior. The desired side effect: to increase the understanding of energy saving measures and apply this knowledge to their everyday lives.

 

Communication and Motivation

Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld and Dipl. Psych. Florian Klonek from the Institute of Psychology at the Technical University of Braunschweig show in a recent study how users can reach goals and be motivated with energy-saving. With the help from the Mangold INTERACT Software the communication patterns between Re-Co consultants and users are presented and interpreted. Based on different scenarios, the study shows how strongly the projects depend on the micro-verbal communication level. The study also provides valuable information, such as valuable information for energy consultants and how to productively communicate with customers and users.

 

Link to article "Listen and repeat - but listen carefully!"

Multiple research articles on comparative differential and personality psychology

Author: Jana Uher,...

 

Multiple research articles on comparative differential and personality psychology.

Research into primate personality and social relationships

Link to "Primate Personality Net"

Speaking Up Is Related to Better Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions: An Observational Study

Author: Michaela Kolbe, Michael J. Burtscher, Johannes Wacker, Bastian Grande, Renata Nohynkova, Tanja Manser, Donat R. Spahn, Gudela Grote

 

Thegoal in this study was to test the relationship between speaking up—i.e., questioning, correcting, or clarifying a current procedure—and technical team performance in anesthesia. Hypothesis 1: team members’ higher levels of speaking up are related to higher levels of technical team performance. Hypothesis 2: team members will react to speaking up by either clarifying their procedure or initiating a procedural change. Hypothesis 3: higher levels of speaking up during an earlier phase of teamwork will be related to higher levels of speaking up during a later phase.

This report was previously presented, in part, at the fourth International Workshop: Behavioural Science Applied to Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; sixth Annual SIOP Conference, Chicago, IL; and 10th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL. Parts of the raw data were also used for an analysis of interactions of team mental models and monitoring behaviors.

Link to "Anesthesia & Analgesia" journal

Gaze Patterns to a Speaker's Face in Typically Developing and ASD Children

Author: Elician Celine Wartman, Nancy Riccardi, Nancy Rader

 

To study attention to a speaker in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism (ASD), we tested TD children in three age groups and one group of ASD children. The younger TD children and the ASD children spent less time looking at the speaker than the older TD children. ASD children also spent less time looking at the eyes than the mouth compared to age-similar TD children. These results reveal differences between age-similar TD children and in children with ASD in selective attention to a speaker’s face. The ASD looking pattern was most like that of TD toddlers.

Poster Presentation at EPA, Pittsburg, USA, 2012

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Looking Away from the Speaker's Mouth: A Developmental Shift from Infancy to Preschool

Author: Nancy Rader, Patricial Zukow-Goldring, Elizabeth Stuprich, Michelle Rhoades

 

Our research examined where infants and children focus their attention when viewing a speaker. We hypothesized that infants would spend more time looking at the speaker’s mouth than the eyes, while preschool children would spend more time looking at the speaker’s eyes than the mouth. Using eye tracking technology, we measured gaze duration to the eyes and mouth of the speaker. The results supported our hypothesis.

Poster Presentation at SRCD, Montreal, Canada, 2011

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Fetal Exposure to Synthetic Oxytocin and Relationship with Prefeeding (PF) Cues Within One Hour Postbirth

Author: Aleeca Bell, Kristin Rankin, Rosemary White-Traut

 

We introduce a new coding schema of prefeeding (PF) cues to explore whether fetal exposure to synthetic oxytocin (Pitocin) during labor is associated with the infant’s level of prefeeding organization shortly after birth.

Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012

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"Follow my lead": What follows after one child's initiative in preschooler triads in a cooperative task?

Author: Paula Döge, Heidi Keller

Peer interactions play an important role in children‘s everyday life in institutional daycare. Sustaining social interactions requires skills as attending to the interaction partner(s), mastering turn-taking and prosocial behavior (Fabes, Martin & Hanish, 2011). If cooperation is needed to master a task, these skills become even more important.
Peer triads represent a complex setting of interactional possibilities of all three children (Ishikawa & Hay, 2006). Initiatives constitute starting points to analyze how social interaction is negotiated in a cooperative task. By suggesting how to proceed one child offers opportunities for social practices. The other children’s reactions to the initiative are indicative for the involvement and social structure.
We therefore ask:
(1) To what extent and how are initiatives responded to by the other group members?
(2) Are there differences between boy and girl groups?
(3) What behavioral interaction sequence follows each initiative?
Poster Presentation at ISSBD Biennial Meeting, Edmonton, Canada, 2012

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Rationality or Resonance? Eight-month-olds Copy Outcomes Rather Than Actions

Author: Rebecca G. Sperotto, Elma Hilbrink, Elena Sakkalou, Kate Ellis-Davies, Merideth Gattis

Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012

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Infants' Attention Patterns to People and Objects: Longitudinal Relations to Cortisol and a-Amylase

Author: Corrine J. Zavala, Kaya de Barbaro, Andrea Chiba, Srikrishna Khandrika, Gedeon O. Deák

The current study aims to relate past animal and adult research on physiologically mediated vigilance to patters of infant attention. Infants at 6, 7 and 12 month performed a gaze- and point-cue following task in a controlled laboratory environment...
(Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012).

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The Context of Early Helping Behavior

Author: Audun Dahl, Rachel K. Schuck, C. Jennifer Hung, Alison Hsieh, Joseph J. Campos

Past research tell us little about young children't experiences with helping. The current studies represent two investigations of the context of helping behavior in everyday life during the second year.
(Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012).

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Domain Differences in Early Prohibitive Interactions

Author: Audun Dahl, Joseph J. Campos, Elliot Turiel

Are domain differences in social interactions present already in the beginning of the second year, after the onset of walking? Are domain differences limited to verbal justifications provided in response to transgressions, or are such differences also evident in other aspects of prohibitive interactions?
(Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012).

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Successful Potsdam early intensive home-training for parents of autistic children - Comparison of training and control waiting group

Author: Helmut Ott, Claire Molnar, Renate Frost, Juliane Höpfner, Asimwe Paehl

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) benefit from a behavior therapeutical early support in combination with an intensive parental home-training (20h/week for 12 month).

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The Stability of Infant Preferences for Socially Based Attention: Observational, Experimental and Longitudinal Analysis

Author: Kate Ellis-Davies, Elena Sakkalou, Nia Fowler, Elma Hilbrink, Merideth Gattis

The current study aims to explre the stability of social preferences across time and context using mother-infant interactions, experimental tasks and parental reports.
39 mothers were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy for the First Steps Longitudinal Study. All participants were singletons and born at term.
(Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011).

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Children's coping strategies and stress regulation during the transition from home to child care

Author: Tina Eckstein, Lieselotte Ahnert, Gregor Kappler

For some years, students of behavioral development have acknowledged early childhood as a period during which the main coping strategies in life develop in order to regulate negative emotions. Whilst experimental research in laboratories shows whether and how, young children cope with evoked frustrations or irritations, much less is known about how children deal with significant situations that occur naturally in their daily lives. The present study therefore aims to investigate how children cope when they are taken into child care, wondering whether specific behavioral patterns could be identified that aid children in their struggle to cope with the new environment and how these coping strategies influence the physiological stress regulation as reflected in diurnal cortisol patterns.
(Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011).

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Assessing Joint Engagement in Toddlers: Observations and Ratings Compared

Author: Roger Bakeman, Lauren B. Adamson, P. Brooke Nelson, Nevena Dimitrova

Systematic Observation Takes Time:
Observation of children's social behavior - asking trained and reliable observers to assign behavioral codes to event or time intervals - is a common measurement strategy among behavioral scientists... (Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011).

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Bildungs-moments in the early parent-child-dialog - Early childhood Bildungs-research on the basis of INTERACT analysis

Author: Ursula Horsch

Our goal is to conduct comparative Bildung-research with children with and without disabilities. The research projects Babywatching – infant research (1999-2003), dialogical development in infants (Horsch et al. 2004-2008) as well as the research project early childhood Bildung in hearing impaired children that began in 2008 (Horsch et al. 2008-2011) pursue the questions of early childhood Bildung for the first time within a framework of extensive international studies. They study the connection between the development of relationship and dialog within early parent-child-interactions and the therein possible early Bildungs-processes in the age range of zero to two years. We have used the listening age as a basis for children with hearing loss. Therefore the age limit is elevated by up to two years (Horsch, Scheele, Roth, Schulze, Fürst 2009).

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Short Communication - Adult gaze influences infant attention and object processing: implications for cognitive neuroscience

Author: Vincent M. Reid, Tricia Striano

Infants follow others’ gaze toward external objects from early in ontogeny, but whether they use others’ gaze in processing information about objects remains unknown. In Experiment 1, 4-month-old infants viewed a video presentation of an adult gazing toward one of two objects. When presented with the same objects alone a second time, infants looked reliably less at the object to which the adult had directly gazed (cued object). This suggests that the uncued object was perceived as more novel than the object previously cued by the adult’s gaze. In Experiment 2, adult gaze was not directed towards any object. In this control experiment, infants looked at both objects equally in the test phase. These findings show that adult eye gaze biases infant visual attention and information processing. Implications of the paradigm for cognitive neuroscience are presented and the results are discussed in terms of neural structures and change over ontogeny.

Link to Publication at Infancy Research Website

Sympathy Through Affective Perspective Taking and Its Relation to Prosocial Behavior in Toddlers

Author: Amrisha Vaish, Malinda Carpenter, Michael Tomasello

In most research on the early ontogeny of sympathy, young children are presented with an overtly distressed person and their responses are observed. In the current study, the authors asked whether  young children could also sympathize with a person to whom something negative had happened but who was expressing no emotion at all. They showed 18- and 25-month-olds an adult either harming  another adult by destroying or taking away her possessions (harm condition) or else doing something similar that did not harm her (neutral condition). The “victim” expressed no emotions in either condition. Nevertheless, in the harm as compared with the neutral condition, children showed more concern and subsequent prosocial behavior toward the victim. Moreover, children’s concerned looks during the harmful event were positively correlated with their subsequent prosocial behavior. Very young children can sympathize with a victim even in the absence of overt emotional signals, possibly by some form of affective perspective taking.

Link to Publication at APA - American Psychological Association

An Augmented Toy and Social Interaction in Children with Autism

Author: Steve Hinske, William Farr and Nicola Yuill

An Augmented Knights Castle (AKC) play set was adapted so that children with autism can configure programmable elements. This is compared with a non-configurable AKC and when the AKC set is switched-off. When the system is configurable, and when it is switched on, less solitary play and more cooperative play occur. Digital toys, and their configurability are key factors in design for children with autism allowing greater individual control and more socially oriented behaviour. We suggest that tangibles provide a safety net for encouraging social interaction as they allow for a broad range of interaction styles.

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Father-infant interaction patterns as precursors of children's later externalizing behavior problems

Author: P. Trautmann-Villalba, M. Gschwendt, M. H. Schmidt, M. Laucht

This study examined the extend to which fathers' and infants' interaction behavior were related to children's externalizing behavior problems at age 8 and 11 years...

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Maternal bond and mother-child interaction in severe postpartum psychiatric disorders: Is there a link?

Author: P. Trautmann-Villalba, Ch. Hornstein, E. Hohm, E. Rave, S. Wortmann-Fleischer, M. Schwarz

Mothers in the puerperium are vulnerable to a wide spectrum of postpartum psychiatric disorders. One of the central psychological processes of the puerperium is the development of an emotional relationship with the baby. The bond on the infant as well as the interaction with the baby are two aspects of the mother-infant relationship that can be disturbed by mothers with postpartum psychiatric disorders...

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Do as I do: 7-month-old infants selectively reproduce others' goal

Author: J. Kiley Hamlin, Elizabeth V. Hallinan, Amanda L. Woodward

In this study, they tested whether 7-month-old infants would selectively imitate the goal-relevant aspects of an observed action. Infants saw an experimenter perform an action on one of two small toys and then were given the opportunity to act on the toys. Infants viewed actions that were either goal-directed or goal-ambiguous, and that represented either completed or uncompleted goals. Infants reproduced the goal of the experimenter only in those cases where the action was goal-directed, in both the complete and incomplete goal conditions. These results provide the first evidence that infants as young as 7 months of age selectively imitate actions based on their goal-directedness, and that they are able to analyze the goals of even uncompleted actions. Even during the first year of life, infants' sensitivity to goal-directed action is expressed not only in their responses in visual habituation procedures, but also in their overt actions.

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Relations between Early Regulatory Disorders and Maternal Play Strategies

Author: Helene Gudi

Self-regulation, a complex construct, has been defined as the infants' growing capacities to calm on their own, tolerate frustrations, adapt to transitions, initate and cease activities according to situational demands, modulate their state of arousal, and regulate their emotions and behaviors...

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Learning from mother's face

Author: Margarete I. Bolten, Silvia Schneider

An experimental examination of the transgenerational transmission of anxiety.

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Dialogue and Education in the Preverbal Period - A Study on the Situation of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants in the Early Educational Process

Author: Ursula Horsch

From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their child. They introduce as well other people as the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogical way. Proceeding hand in hand they pass on basic dialogical competences. The research project Dialogic Development of Infants (Horsch et al. 2004 – 2007) addresses the broad dialogic development of parents and infants within the first 18 months of life. Our objective is to describe these preverbal dialogs.

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Partners in Dialogue - A Single Case Study Referring to the Development of Spoken and Sign Language of a Child with CHARGE Syndrome

Author: Ursula Horsch, Andrea Scheele

The increasing possibilities of medical care effects rare syndromes as reasons for severe disabilities. One of these rare syndromes is CHARGE Syndrome with aprevalence of 1:12 000. In Germany there is no research referring this syndrome.In the following, selected results of a twelve months long single casestudy referring dialogical development between a father and his 2.5 years old son with CHARGE Syndrome are presented. The focus is especially on the development of spoken and sign language within the dialogue between the two partners.

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Dialogic Development of Infants Turns as basic patterns of the dialogue in the parent-infant-dyad

Author: Research Project Horsch et al.

Abstract: Some aspects of the theoretical background: From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their child and introduce both other people and the worldto their newborn in a mutually dialogic way. Proceeding hand in hand they pass on basic dialogic competences. Our research project “Dialogic Development of Infants” addresses the broad dialogic development of parents and infants within the first 18 months of life. First of all, I want to explain what we mean when we talk about dialogues between parents and infants. What is dialogical in the relationship between parents and infant?

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Early Dialogues as Basic Patterns of Early Education

Author: Research Project Horsch, Roth, Scheele and Werding

Abstract: From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their child and introduce both - other people and the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogic way.

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Unwilling Versus Unable - Infants’ Understanding of Intentional Action

Author: Tanya Behne, Malinda Carpenter, Josep Call and Michael Tomasello

Abstract: Infants experienced a female adult handing them toys. Sometimes, however, the transaction failed, either because the adult was in various ways unwilling to give the toy (e.g., she teased the child with it or played with it herself) or else because she was unable to give it (e.g., she accidentally dropped it). Infants at 9, 12, and 18 months of age reacted with more impatience (e.g., reaching, looking away) when the adult was unwilling to give them the toy than when she was simply unable to give it. Six-month-olds, in contrast, showed no evidence of this differentiation. Because infants’ behavioral responses were appropriately adapted to different kinds of intentional actions, and because the adult’s actions sometimes produced results that did not match her goal (when having accidents or failed attempts), these findings provide especially rich evidence that infants first begin to understand goal-directed action at around 9 months of age.

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A micro-analytic evaluation of parents watching a nondiagnostic ultrasound-based video of their fetus at mid-gestation

Authors: Stadlmayr W., Boukydis C., Bichsel S. et.al.

How pregnant women in difficult psycho-social circumstances experience foetal ultra-sound exams has been used for counselling1. Few studies have addressed the parental interaction, i.e. the couples’ behaviour while watching their fetus during US examinations.

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A Study on Designer’s Mental Process of Information Categorization in the Early Stages of Design

Author: Jieun Kim, Carole Bouchard, Jean-Francois Omhover, Ameziane Aoussat, Laurence Moscardini, Aline Chevalier, Charles Tijus, Francois Buron

Paper at ISADR (International Association of Societies of Design Research) 2009, Seoul, Korea
This research explores how designers mentally categorize design information during early sketching in the early stages of design. With the purpose of identifying various types of mental information and related cognitive operations, the empirical study has been conducted with 8 experienced product designers through the concurrent verbalization. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results is also presented....

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Context dependent gender role self-concept activation

Author: Ursula Athenstaedt

Abstract: The research investigated changes of gender role self-concept (GRS) in dependence of situational aspects and, additionally, its relevance for communication behavior. GRS is defined as the amount of self-ascribed attributes and behaviors that are assumed to be more typical for men or women...

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Human Computer Interaction and Human Factors

Driving behavior pattern analysis for elderly people

Author: Guan-Lun Chen, Jia-Yuarn Guo, Chia-Tso Huang

Abstract: The study aims at evaluating factors associated with driving patterns and self-reported driving difficulty, with particular attention to vision and cognitive impairment. This study uses cross-sectional data from 10 elderly participants (65 years old or older) and 10 young participants along with simulation program, and comparison is by putting on mobile eye tractor. Neurocognitive tests, driving simulation, and road tests provide complementary sources of evidence to evaluate driver safety. No single test is sufficient to determine who should drive and who should not. Finally, we compare the concentration ability and reaction ability between elderly and young participants.

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Casestudy: Portable lab - know-how in a briefcase / MyBOOM relies on Mangold technology

Author: Thorsten Voß

Abstract: Why Westphalian Internet service provider MyBOOM relies on Mangold technology.

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When the Fingers do the Talking: A Study of Group Participation with Varying Constrains to a Tabletop Interface

Author: Paul Marshall, Eva Hornecker, Richard Morris, Nick Sheep Dalton and Yvonne Rogers

Abstract: A user study is presented that investigates how different configurations of input can influence equity of participation around a tabletop interface. Groups of three worked on a design task requiring negotiation in four interface conditions that varied the number (all members can act or only one) and type (touch versus mice) of input. Our findings show that a multi-touch surface increases physical interaction equity and perceptions of dominance, but does not affect levels of verbal participation. Dominant people still continue to talk the most, while quiet ones remain quiet. Qualitative analyses further revealed how other factors can affect how participants contribute to the task. The findings are discussed in terms of how the design of the physicaltechnological set-up can affect the desired form of collaboration.

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Behavioural Analysis of the Tower Controller Activity

Author: Ella Pinska and Marc Bourgois

Abstract: In this paper we report on an initial study concerning the importance of direct observation for control tower activity. The results confirm that looking outside of the window is the most frequent and longest activity of the tower controller, occuoying him for roughly 30-40% of the time. Two other significant activities were scanning radar image and strips. The change of attention between these three information sources is frequent but not in a defined order.

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Virtual cognitive model for Miyazawa Kenji based on speech and facial images recognition

Author: Hamido Fujita, Jun Hakura and Masaki Kurematsu

Abstract: In this paper we a representing a virtual interactive model based on cognitive model of Miyazawa Kenji. We created a computer model based on cognitive thinking of Kenji literature on story telling. The user can interact in real time with Virtual Kenji. The facial gestures been collected and analyzed through Motion capture system consists of six camera. These six cameras set to collect all emotional facial gestures of people who read and practice an recorded assigned Kenji manuscripts for experiment. Each person has 50 markers of 5 mm size attached to all parts of the face (lips, mouth, eyebrow, moustache, eyelash, forehead). The emotional linkage between these facials parts and cognitive emotion been analyzed and recorded. We have proposed a database; called as Facial recognition database based on FACS model, Also we have correspondingly, speech synthesis part that would analyze the emotional part of human speech. These synthesized two parts are been re-constructed on hologram that represents the cognitively the character of Kenji virtual model who has a face with gestures harmonize with a speech and facial images generated by the system. Also, the system interacts with the human user based on collected observed response on human user and inference by the system in real time.

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Labeling of Gestures in SmartKom − Concept of the Coding System

Author: Silke Steininger

The SmartKom project is concerned with the development of an intelligent computer−user interface that allows a user to communicate almost naturally with an adaptive and self−explanatory dialogue system. Among other things the system will be able to analyze the gestural input of the user. To train a gesture analyzer, data is required, preferably realistic data. One of the tasks of our institute in the project is the collection and annotation of such data. Since the machine does not yet exist the data collection is done with help of so called Wizard of Oz−experiments: The system is simulated by humans (the "wizards") and the subjects are made believe that they interact with an existing machine. We record the subjects (video and audio) as they solve short tasks. The recordings are labeled off−line with respect to the gestures that the subjects used.

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Evaluating Software Support for Video Data Capture and Analysis in Collaborative Design Studies

Author: Linda Candy, Zafer Bilda, Mary Lou Maher and John S. Gero

Abstract: In order to understand the implications of introducing new digital tools into design practice, research into how designers work collaboratively using both traditional and digital media is being undertaken. For that purpose it is necessary to gather large quantities of empirical data and this poses problems as to how to manage and analyse that data effectively. This paper describes the evaluation of a software system for capturing and analysing video data in the context of collaborative design studies. These studies will generate large amounts of data and support for its management and analysis is vital to the successful completion of the work. In order to find a match to our specific requirements, we conducted a survey from which the software application, INTERACT was identified. A study of its use and suitability was carried out in conditions as near as possible to the intended research. We found that INTERACT met our requirements and provided significant efficiency gains for the analysis of the data.

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Comparing Collaborative Design Behavior in Remote Sketching and 3D Virtual Worlds

Author: Mary Lou Maher, Zafer Bilda and David Marchant

Abstract: The aim of this study is to compare two architects’ collaborative design behaviour while using a shared whiteboard application in one design session and a 3D virtual world in a second design session. Our preliminary analysis shows that designers spend more time discussing design ideas while sketching and more time creating the design model and inspecting spatial relationships while in a 3D virtual world.

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Example using the MangoldVision Eye Tracker in Augmented Reality Based E-Commerce Platform

Authors: Min-Chai Hsieh and Hao-Chiang Lin

This Taiwanese presentation shows an example of using the MangoldVision Eye Tracker in studies on an augmented reality based e-commerce platform.

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Studies on Visual Illusion Figures using the MangoldVision Eye Tracker

Authors: Mei-Chi Chen and Hao-Chiang Lin

This Taiwanese presentation shows an application of the MangoldVision Eye Tracker in psychological studies on Visual Illusion Figures.

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Basics of Studies on Behavior

Proceeding studies on behavior - not only a challenge for professional tools

Author: Pascal Mangold

Abstract: The following insights are based on my company’s long term empirical experience as system developer in the field of behavioral research. The paper discusses several aspects of data collection and analysis in day to day studies on behavior. It points out the necessity of using specialized software tools in behavioral research. It shows why video recordings are very beneficial for analysis and not only for documentation purpose. It discusses the advantages of using structured coding schemas instead of taking notes only. Finally the possibilities of the INTERACT software tool environment are sketched.

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Practice Based Research: A Guide

Author: Linda Candy

Abstract: Practice-based Research is an original investigation undertaken in order to gain new knowledge partly by means of practice and the outcomes of that practice. In a doctoral thesis, claims of originality and contribution to knowledge may be demonstrated through creative outcomes in the form of designs, music, digital media, performances and exhibitions. Whilst the significance and context of the claims are described in words, a full understanding can only be obtained with direct reference to the outcomes.

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Studies on Animals

Investigation of distances covered by fattening pigs measured with VideoMotionTracker

Author: Julia Brendle, Steffen Hoy

The investigation was carried out with altogether 220 pigs kept in groups of 6 or 12. Every pen was equipped with perforated floor. Water and the in-house compound feed with different elements depending on the fattening period were available ad libitum during the whole fattening period. At the beginning of each fattening period all pigs were weighed and the individual rank place was calculated based on 72 h continuous infrared video-recordings. At the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the fattening period the distances covered by focus animals during 24 h were measured using the VideoMotionTracker (VMT) software tool (Mangold). The VideoMotionTracker is a software solution to allow tracking animals on a video recording using the PC mouse or a touch-screen terminal to measure distances that were covered. This measurements on pigs resulted in highly significant differences between the covered distances at the different fattening stages (at the beginning: 582 m; in the middle: 391 m; at the end: 261 m on average). Fattening pigs kept in groups of 12 each covered longer distances during the fattening period compared with pigs kept in groups of 6 (459 m versus 333 m). The differences between the means were highly significant (p < 0.001). On average female pigs covered a longer distance than castrated male pigs (443 m versus 349 m).

The factor rank position did not show any significant influence on the covered distance of each focus animal. Pigs with high rank positions on average covered 399 m whereas pigs with low rank positions covered with 393 m a marginally shorter distance. Furthermore the interaction between fattening period and rank position was examined but did not show any significance either. The influence of the factor pen within group size was highly significant (p < 0.001) and the parameters live weight and covered distances were negatively correlated.

 

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Effect of group size, phase of fattening period, gender and rank position on distances covered by fattening pigs

Autor: Julia Brendle, Steffen Hoy

 

Poster Presentation at ISAE 2012, Vienna, Austria

 

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Tool Use in Animals

Author: C. Sanz, J. Call, C. Boesch

Capuchin Monkeys cracking nuts with stones or chimpanzees catching termites with sticks. These are examples of animals that use tools inventively – mostly to tap into food sources. The book, “Tool Use in Animals”, offers the interdisciplinary insight into the topic of tool use in animals, recently published by Cambridge Publishing House.

 

The book examines the cognitive abilities and environmental factors that have shaped the tool development and tool use in animals. What makes this book extremely special: The animals were not observed in laboratory studies, but in the wild. Thus, the publication is a fascinating read and is not only aimed at scientific readership.

 

“Tool Use in Animals” presents contributions from several leading authors from psychology, biology and anthropology. The editors are Dr. Crickette Sanz, anthropologist at Washington University, Dr. Josep Call, psychologist at Max-Planck-Institute and Professor Christophe Boesch, director of the Max-Planck-Instituts for Evolutionary Anthropology.

 

Dr. Crickette Sanz is also a member of the Mangold Scientific Council and engaged in the Goualougo Triangle Ape Project which is dedicated to research and preservation of great apes in the Congo.

 

Link to Publication

Contextualised behavioural measurements of personality differences obtained in behavioural tests and social observations in adult capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

Author: Jana Uher, Elsa Addessi, Elisabetta Visalberghi

 

We applied a new framework for behavioural research on personality differences in 26 adult tufted capuchin monkeys. Using the Behavioural Repertoire x Environmental Situations Approach, we generated systematically 20 non-lexical emic personality constructs that have high ecological validity for this species. For construct operationalisation, we obtained 146 contextualised behavioural measures repeatedly in 15 experimental situations and 2 group situations using computerised and video-assisted methods. A complete repetition after a 2–3-week break within a 60-day period yielded significant test–retest reliability from individual-oriented and variable-oriented viewpoints at different levels of aggregation. In accordance with well-established findings on cross-situational consistency, internal consistency was only moderate. This new and important finding highlights fundamental differences between behavioural approaches and judgment-based approaches to personality differences.

Link to "Journal of Research in Personality"

Aping expressions: Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others

Author: M. Davila Ross, B. Allcock, C. Thomas, K.A. Bard

Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication...

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Responding to inequities: Gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights

Author: E.J.C. van Leeuwen, E. Zimmermann, M. Davila Ross

Human respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the form of inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage...

 

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A dual function of echolocation: bats use echolocation calls to identify familiar and unfamiliar individuals

Author: Silke L. Voigt-Heucke, Michael Taborsky, Dina K.N. Dechmann

Bats use echolocation for orientation during foraging and navigation. However, it has been suggested that echolocation calls may also have a communicative function, for instance between roost members. In principle, this seems possible because echolocation calls are species specific and known to differ between the sexes, and between colonies and individuals for some species. We performed playback experiments with lesser bulldog bats, Noctilio albiventris, to which we presented calls of familiar/unfamiliar conspecifics, cohabitant/noncohabitant heterospecifics and ultrasonic white noise as a control. Bats reacted with a complex repertoire of social behaviours and the intensity of their response differed significantly between stimulus categories. Stronger reactions were shown towards echolocation calls of unfamiliar conspecifics than towards heterospecifics and white noise. To our knowledge, this is the first time that bats have been found to react to echolocation calls with a suite of social behaviours. Our results also provide the first experimental evidence for acoustical differentiation by bats between familiar and unfamiliar conspecifics, and of heterospecifics. Analysis of echolocation calls confirmed significant individual differences between echolocation calls. In addition, we found a nonsignificant trend towards group signatures in echolocation calls of N. albiventris. We suggest that echolocation calls used during orientation may also communicate species identity, group affiliation and individual identity. Our study highlights the communicative potential of sonar signals that have previously been categorized as cues in animal social systems.

 

Link to "Animal Behaviour" website

Genetic Architecture of Tameness in a Rat Model of Animal Domestication

Author: Frank W. Albert...

Abstract of the main publication: A common feature of domestic animals is tameness—i.e., they tolerate and are unafraid of human presence and handling. To gain insight into the genetic basis of tameness and aggression, we studied an intercross between two lines of rats (Rattus norvegicus) selected over.60 generations for increased tameness and increased aggression against humans, respectively. We measured 45 traits, including tameness and aggression, anxiety-related traits, organ weights, and levels of serum components in .700 rats from an intercross population. Using 201 genetic markers, we identified two significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) for tameness. These loci overlap with QTL for adrenal gland weight and for anxiety-related traits and are part of a five-locus epistatic network influencing tameness. An additional QTL influences the occurrence of white coat spots, but shows no significant effect on tameness. The loci described here are important starting points for finding the genes that cause tameness in these rats and potentially in domestic animals in general.

Link to Genetics website

Rapid facial mimicry in orangutan play

Author: Marina Davila Ross, Susanne Menzler and Elke Zimmermann

Abstract: Emotional contagion enables individuals to experience emotions of others. This important empathic phenomenon is closely linked to facial mimicry, where facial displays evoke the same facial expressions in social partners. In humans, facial mimicry can be voluntary or involuntary, whereby its latter mode can be processed as rapid as within or at 1 s. Thus far, studies have not provided evidence of rapid involuntary facial mimicry in animals.
This study assessed whether rapid involuntary facial mimicry is present in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; NZ25) for their open-mouth faces (OMFs) during everyday dyadic play. Results clearly indicated that orangutans rapidly mimicked OMFs of their playmates within or at 1 s. Our study revealed the first evidence on rapid involuntary facial mimicry in non-human mammals. This finding suggests that fundamental building blocks of positive emotional contagion and empathy that link to rapid involuntary facial mimicry in humans have homologues in non-human primates.

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Responding to inequities: gorillas try to maintain their competitive advantage during play fights

Author: Edwin Van Leeuwen, Elke Zimmermann and Marina Davila Ross

Abstract: Humans respond to unfair situations in various ways. Experimental research has revealed that non-human species also respond to unequal situations in the formof inequity aversions when they have the disadvantage. The current study focused on play fights in gorillas to explore for the first time, to our knowledge, if/how non-human species respond to inequities in natural social settings. Hitting causes a naturally occurring inequity among individuals and here it was specifically assessed how the hitters and their partners engaged in play chases that followed the hitting. The results of this work showed that the hitters significantly more often moved first to run away immediately after the encounter than their partners. These findings provide evidence that non-human species respond to inequities by trying to maintain their competitive advantages. We conclude that non-human primates, like humans, may show different responses to inequities and that they may modify them depending on if they have the advantage or the disadvantage. 

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Kin recognition in the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus)

Author: Institute of Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover / Lab course: Experimental Behavioural Biology

Abstract: Kin recognition is a prerequisite for kin selection. Kin selection has been theorized as a driving force behind the evolution of group-living in primates. vocal recognition of kin has been observed in haplorhine primates (Rendall, 2004) and in the diurnal, gregarious strepsirrhine, Lemur catta (Nunn, 2000). Much less research has been done on the vocalizations of the nocturnal, solitarily foraging strepsirrhines. Our study is the first to test for vocal recognition of kin in a nongregarious strepsirrhine. Mouse lemurs are small-boiled, nocturnal, solitarily foraging strepsirrhine primates that have dispersed social networks (Braune et al., 2008). We have testet whether M. murinus females respond differently to and whistles, an alarm call (Braune et al., 2008), and trills, advertisement calls, given by their father and by unrelated males.  

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Food preference in two mouse lemur species (Microcebus lehilahytsara & Microcebus murinus)

Author: Institute of Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover / Lab course: Experimental Behavioural Biology

Abstract: Two different species of mouse lemurs (Microcebus lehilahytsara and M. murinus) were tested for their food preferences. Four different food items were presented in a two paired choice test to find the most adequate reward for upcoming behavioural tests.  

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Acoustic cues of caller identity and affect intensity in communication calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)

Author: Institute of Zoology, University of Veterinary Medicine Hannover / Lab course: Experimental Behavioural Biology

Abstract: Comparative studies on the vocalisation of humans and animals have shown that structural and temporal variations in communication sounds serve several functions, such as to reliably transmit the affective state and individuality of the sender. These variations within a call type are named acoustic cues and are ghoutght to be important factors in the communication process of social living animals. In the present study, we have examined attention calls of tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) for acoustic cues conveying the affective state and/or individuality of the sender. Any general physiological activation of the nervous system in a tree shrew leads to defined changes in its behavioural patterns. When aroused, it raises its tail/ruffles its tail hair and sometimes utters attention calls (von Holst, 1977). Tree shrews utter these calls in their natural habitat, when they are confronted with new environmental stimuli (Emmons, 2000).  

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Personality in the behaviour of great apes - temporal stability, cross-situational consistency

Author: Jana Uher, Jens B. Asendorpf and Josep Call

Abstract: Using a multidisciplinary approach, the present study complements ethological behaviour measurements with basic theoretical concepts, methods and approaches of the personality psychological trait paradigm. Its adoptability and usefulness for animal studies is tested exemplarily on a sample of 20 zoo-housed great apes (five of each of the following species): bonobos, Pan paniscus; chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus; gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla; and orang-utans, Pongo pygmaeus abelii. Data on 76 single trait-relevant behaviours were recorded in a series of 14 laboratory based situations and in two different group situations. Data collection was repeated completely after a break of two weeks within a 50-day period. All behaviour records were sufficiently reliable. Individual- and variable-oriented analyses showed high/substantial temporal stability on different levels of aggregation. Distinctive and stable individual situational and response profiles clarified the importance of situations and of multiple trait-relevant behaviours. The present study calls for a closer collaboration between personality psychologists and behavioural biologists to tap the full potential of animal personality research.  

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Personality assessment in the Great Apes: Comparing ecologically valid behavior measures, behavior ratings, and adjective ratings

Author: Jana Uher and Jens B. Asendorpf

Abstract: Three methods of personality assessment (behavior measures, behavior ratings, adjective ratings) were compared in 20 zoo-housed Great Apes: bonobos (Pan paniscus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). To test a new bottom-up approach, the studied trait constructs were systematically generated from the species’ behavioral repertoires. The assessments were reliable, temporally stable, and showed substantial cross-method coherence. In most traits, behavior ratings mediated the relations between adjective ratings and behavior measures. Results suggest that high predictability of manifest behavior is best achieved by behavior ratings, not by adjectives. Empirical evidence for trait constructs beyond current personality models points to the necessity of broad and systematic approaches for valid inferences on a species’ personality structure.

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Cooperative Activities in Young Children and Chimpanzees

Author: Felix Warneken, Frances Chen and Michael Tomasello

Abstract: Human children 18 – 24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult partner stopped participating at a specific point during the activity. All children produced at least one communicative attempt to reengage him, perhaps suggesting that they were trying to reinstate a shared goal. No chimpanzee ever made any communicative attempt to reengage the partner. These results are interpreted as evidence for a uniquely human form of cooperative activity involving shared intentionality that emerges in the second year of life.

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Computer Supported Measurement of Distance Moved by Rabbits a day by Mangold Video Motion Tracker

Author: Steffen Hoy, Justus Liebig University of Gießen

Abstract: Because of several reasons it was necessary to develop and to test a new software solution to analyze the distance moved by farm animals in the field.  

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