Outdoor Fitness Equipment Usage Behaviors in Natural Settings
Authors: Hsueh-wen Chow* and Dai-Rong Wu, Graduate Institute of Physical Education, Health & Leisure Studies, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan; firstname.lastname@example.org *Correspondence: email@example.com; Tel.: +886-62757575 (ext. 81806) Received: 8 November 2018; Accepted: 25 January 2019; Published: 30 January 2019
Abstract: Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) areas have become a popular form of built environment infrastructure in public open spaces as a means to improve public health through increased physical activity. However, the benefits of using OFE are not consistent, and several OFE accidents have been reported. In this study, we videotaped how OFE users operate OFE in parks and selected four types of popular OFE (the waist twister, air walker, ski machine, and waist/back massager) for video content analysis. Furthermore, we established coding schemes and compared results with the instructions provided by OFE manufacturers. The results revealed various usage behaviors for the same OFE types. In addition, we observed that a significant portion of user behaviors did not follow manufacturers’ instructions, which might pose potential risks or actually cause injuries. Children are especially prone to act improperly. This study provides empirical evidence indicating the existence of potential safety risks due to inappropriate usage behaviors that might lead to accidents and injuries while using OFE. This study provides crucial information that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of OFE and to develop future park or open space initiatives.Download
Contact Is in the Eye of the Beholder: The Eye Contact Illusion
Authors: Shane L. Rogers*, Oliver Guidetti, Craig P. Speelman, Melissa Longmuir Psychology Department, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia Ruben Phillips Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia *Corresponding Author: Shane L. Rogers, Psychology Department, Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Received: April 01, 2018; Accepted: January 09, 2019; Article first published online: February 4, 2019
In a simple experiment, we demonstrate that you don’t need to mindfully look at the eyes of your audience to be perceived as making eye contact during face-to-face conversation. Simply gazing somewhere around the face/head area will suffice. Or to borrow a term from Mareschal and colleagues, direct gaze will suffice. For those readers who experience anxiety when gazing specifically at another person’s eyes, or when being gazed at, we expect this is welcome news.
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A Dynamic Systems Approach to Emotion Co-Regulation in Father-Child Dyads when Children have Autism Spectrum Disorder
Authors: Yuqing Guo 1, Dana Rose Garfin 2, Agnes Ly 3, Wendy Goldberg 21 University of California Irvine, Sue & Bill Gross School of Nursing, 2 Department of Psychology and Social Behavior3 University of Delaware, Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences
Introduction: Emotion regulation abilities facilitate the development of emotional functioning and long-term adaptive skills (Gross, 1998, 2007). Emotional dysregulation, while not a core deficit of ASD, is frequently observed among children with ASD and contributes to problems in social interaction.Download
Objective: To compare micro-level positive and negative emotion coregulation processes in father-child dyads for children with ASD and neurotypical (NT) children.
Emotion Coregulation in Mother-Child Dyads: A Dynamic Systems Analysis of Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder
Authors: Yuqing Guo, Dana Rose Garfin, Agnes Ly, Wendy A. Goldberg
Few studies have investigated patterns of emotion coregulation in families of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or contrasted the ways in which their emotion coregulation patterns differ from families of typically developing (TD) children. To address this gap, we used a dynamic systems approach to compare flexible structure and emotional content of coregulation between mothers and children (3– 7 years) with ASD (n = 47) and TD children (n = 26).Download
Mother-child play interactions in the home were videotaped and emotion-engagement states were coded in micro-level 5-s intervals based on behavioral and affective expressions.
Analyses indicated that mother-child dyads in the ASD group spent more time than dyads in the TD group in mismatched emotion-engagement states (e.g., child negative/mother positive), and children with ASD spent more time than TD children engaged exclusively with objects. Mother-child dyads in the TD group stayed longer in mutual positive engagement states. Compared to dyads in the TD group, mother-child dyads in the ASD group exhibited greater flexibility (i.e., a wider range of emotional-engagement states, more frequent changes in states, and less time in each state). These findings suggest that mothers and their children with ASD do not sustain dyadic positive engagement patterns in a low-stress environment.
Findings confirmed the preference of children with ASD for objects over social partners, even when they are at home with their mothers, and elucidated a challenging mother-child interactional style. Results have implications for mother-child interventions aimed at regulating negative emotional states and sustaining positive ones in families raising children with ASD.
Download the complete study papers here...
Auditory Joint Engagement: Autism Affects How Toddlers Share Sounds During Parent-Child Interactions
Authors: Lauren B. Adamson, Roger Bakeman, Katharine Suma, & Diana L. Robins form Georgiy State Universysy
This study provides an unprecedented view of how toddlers react to and share speech, music, and environmental sounds.Download
Joint Engagement in Sibling Interactions Including a Child with ASD: Intensive Frame-by-Frame Analysis
Authors: Yonat Rum1; Ditza A. Zachor1,2; Esther Dromi1, 1Tel-Aviv University, 2 The Autism Center, Assaf Harofeh Medical Center
Sibling interactions provide an opportunity for children with ASD to participate in reciprocal play and communication activities and to practice initiating and maintaining their JE abilities. The current results offer implications for social intervention programs at home as well as in inclusive educational frameworks for children with ASD (Chan & Lock, 2016).Download
Extending Models of Sensitive Parenting of Infants to Women at Risk for Perinatal Depression
Authors: Sherryl H. Goodman, Roger Bakeman, Meaghan McCallum, Matthew H. Rouse & Stephanie F. Thompson
Recognizing that not all mothers at risk for depression engage in insensitive parenting, this study examined predictors of individual differences in sensitive parenting of infants by mothers with histories of depression, who are at elevated risk for depression during the perinatal period.Download
Interaction among siblings that one of them has ASD - parameters for examination
Authors: Yonat Rum, Professor Esther Dromi Tel Aviv University
Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined as a communicative-social disorder (APA, 2013). In the past, children with ASD were described as deliberately avoiding social interaction and as lacking any social abilities (Kanner, 1943). Contemporary research has shown that these children do possess social abilities, and that these depend both on the social partner with whom they are interacting as well as the context of interaction. For example, Kimhi & Bauminger-Zviely (2012) found better social skills with a partner defined as ‘a friend’ rather than with a ‘non-friend’ partner. Better skills were also found when this friend was a child with typical development (TD) as compared to a friend who also had ASD (Bauminger-Zvieli, 2013). Children with ASD were found to have more reciprocal conversations when talking with other children as opposed to when talking with adults (Nadig et al., 2010). These findings accentuate the significant impact social partners have on the ability of a child with ASD to execute social skills.
Sibling relationships are often the longest and most significant relationships in a lifetime, with the potential to deeply influence personality, social and cognitive skills (Boer, Dunn, & Dunn, 2013; Gass, Jenkins, & Dunn, 2007; Noller, 2005). Research on the development of TD young children's social skills highlights the significant role of sibling interaction as one of the most enhancing contexts for acquiring communicative and social skills (Brody, 2004; Dunn, 1992). Considering the fact that communicative-social impairments are fundamental in ASD, the paucity of research on these children's interaction with their siblings is striking.
Very few studies have looked at sibling interaction where one child has ASD and compared it to interaction between siblings who were both TD, or where one had a disability other than ASD (Kaminsky & Dewey, 2001; Knott, Lewis, & Williams, 1995; 2007). In such studies researchers concluded that dyads containing a participant with ASD were inferior to both other groups in terms of the intensity, complexity, and reciprocity of their social interaction, and also contained less rivalry between siblings (Knott et al., 1995, 2007). Relationships between siblings in the experimental group were characterized by less intimacy and fewer prosocial behaviors than in the relationships of two TD siblings or sibling dyads containing a child with Down syndrome (Kaminsky & Dewey, 2001). However, it is difficult to learn about the unique contribution of the sibling relationship to the social skills of a child with ASD when using such comparison groups. Such methodology highlights the deficits in the siblings’ dyadic interaction–attributed to the disabilities of the child with ASD–instead of highlighting abilities. In our study we utilize a different methodological approach. Rather than compare groups on the basis of averaged data, our aim was to examine in detail the characteristics of sibling interactions, while identifying variables that require direct attention and measuring those variables in great detail.
This poster presents the parameters we used in order to examine sibling interactions in an inter-subject design. The set of parameters we present, as well as the description of the procedures we used while analyzing data with INTERACT software, aims to narrow the gap in the literature regarding sibling interactions in a family with a child with ASD.
Read and see more on the poster, presented on the 52nd Conference of the Israeli Speech, Hearing and Language Association (ISHLA).
Qualitässicherung beim Coaching mit MI
Authors: Florian Erik Klonek, Amelie Verena Güntner, Simone Kauffeld
Damit Sie auch im Coaching bekommen, was auf der Verpackung steht: Qualitätssicherung von Coachings am Beispiel der Prozessanalyse im Motivational Interviewing - Eine Publikation zum Motivational Interviewing und CoachingDownload
"... Der folgende Beitrag widmet sich der Frage, wie man Qualitätssicherung im Coaching durchführen kann. Wir orientieren uns hierbei an der sozio-interaktionalen Intervention des Motivational Interviewing (MI, Miller und Rollnick 2013). Für Leser, die nicht mit MI vertraut sind, geben wir zunächst eine kurze Übersicht über die Grundlagen des MI und den Einsatz der Methode im Coaching. Im Anschluss
daran stellen wir ein Prozess-Analyse-Instrument des MI für Coaching-Interventionen vor, das zu Qualitätssicherung eingesetzt werden kann.
Anhand eines Fallbeispiels wird aufgezeigt, wie die Prozess-Analyse im MI durchgeführt wird und wie man sicherstellen kann, dass ein Coach auch eine MI-Intervention durchführt..."
Die Studie wurde im Springer Verlag veröffentlicht unter: C. Triebel et al. (Hrsg.), Qualität im Coaching,
DOI 10.1007/978-3-662-49058-7_13, © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016
Hier >>> können Sie das komplette Buch "Qualität beim Coaching" direkt beim Springer-Verlag bestellen.
A Dynamic Systems Approach to Mother-Child Emotion Co-Regulation in Relation to Adaptive Functioning in Children with ASD
Authors: Yuqing Guo, Monica Garcia, Silvia Gutierrez, Sun Kim, Shannon Merrell, Christina Garibay, Paola Martinez, Soraya Davia, Valentina Valentovich, Wendy Goldberg (2015)
Parents play an important role in the development of emotion regulation capabilities, but little is known about emotion regulation between parents and young children with ASD.Download
Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior
Authors: Florian E. Klonek, Amelie v. Güntner, Nale Lehmann-Willenbrock, Simone Kauffeld (2015)
Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory(SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter - arguments when presented withe nvironmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) — an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation — can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (controlgroup). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitivereactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasonstochange). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.Download
Providing engineers with OARS and EARS:Effects of a skills-based vocational training in Motivational Interviewing for engineers in higher education
Authors: Florian E. Klonek, Simone Kauffeld (2015)
The curriculum of technical professions and engineering education often is heavily focussed on technical knowledge (Darling and Dannels, 2003). More recently, scholars have argued that oral communication skills are increasingly important for engineers (Ford and Teare, 2006; Seat et al., 2001). The rational for this argument is that communication skills are important for personal and professional development (Morreale and Pearson, 2008; Morreale et al., 2000), are rated among the most requested skills by employers (The Cline, 2005; McEwen, 1997), and can facilitate career success (Morreale and Pearson, 2008). As engineers spend about 50 percent of their day communicating with others (Vest et al., 1996) it is even more important for them to communicate effectively. However, it appears to be challenging to teach communication skills effectively to engineers (Dannels et al., 2003; Ford and Teare, 2006). Given the importance of communication skills in the area of engineering (Darling and Dannels, 2003) and higher education (Morreale and Pearson, 2008), the evaluation of communication training in this domain is worth studying.Download
The present study sets out to evaluate how professional development in Motivational Interviewing (MI) – a person-centered and directive communication method – has measurable impact on engineers’ communication skills. Overall, this study contributes the following. First, we will outline the basic features of MI. We will give definitions and examples of central verbal skills in MI and show how these can be assessed by using an observation-based scientific approach. Second, we will show how skills covered in MI are valuable within the work environments of engineers. Finally, we will illustrate how to use an observational instrument as a quality assurance measure in higher education. For this, we present results from a training study that we carried out in a university of technology.
Manual Distractions of Ambulance Drivers: Light-and-siren vs. Non-light-and-siren Travel
Authors: Grundgeiger, T., Scharf, M., Grundgeiger, J., Scheuchenpflug, R. (2014)
Emergency medical services personnel are involved in more transportation accidents and have higher fatality rates than do other professions, and traveling with light-and-siren is particularly risky. One factor that might contribute to transportation accidents is driver distraction. We investigated what kind of manual secondary tasks – distractions that require the driver to take at least one hand off the steering wheel – ambulance drivers face and compared the relative frequency and proportion of time spent in manual operations not related to driving for light-and-siren travel vs. non-light-and-siren travel. The results indicate that ambulance drivers face more manual distractions when traveling with light-and-siren than non-light-and-siren. In particular, operating the light-and-siren system is causing most of the manual distractions. We discuss the results and potential implication for practice.
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Toothbrushing and flossing behaviour in young adults - a video observation
Authors: Winterfeld, T., Schlueter, N., Harnacke, D., Illig, J., Margraf-Stiksrud, J., Deinzer, R., Ganss, C. (2014)
Objectives: Video observation studies of habitual oral hygiene from the 1970s revealed a striking neglect of brushing oral surfaces and unsystematic brushing patterns with frequent movements between areas. These findings were not systematically followed up; furthermore, nothing is known about whether subjects are able to floss sufficiently. Therefore, the aim of this video study was to analyse the performance of habitual toothbrushing and flossing. Methods: A random sample of 101 18-year-olds was included. Toothbrush and floss were provided; habitual brushing/flossing was videotaped in a standardised setting and analysed with the video coding software INTERACT. Parameters of interest were toothbrushing duration, type of brushing strokes, brushing patterns, flossed interproximal spaces and flossing technique. Results: The mean brushing duration was 156.0 ± 71.1 s; duration differed only slightly between the upper and lower jaw as well as between the right, left and anterior areas. However, oral surfaces were brushed distinctly shorter than vestibular surfaces (27.1 ± 27.8 s versus 72.1 ± 31.8 s; p ≤ 0.001). Participants brushed different areas of the mouth with different types of strokes, predominantly with horizontal and circular strokes. Brushing movements frequently alternated between areas (45.1 ± 22.4) not randomly but accumulated within a jaw with a tendency to move from the right to the left. Half of the participants flossed, but only one performed sufficiently. Conclusions: There was a significant neglect of brushing oral surfaces and insufficient use of floss. Brushing patterns were similar to those observed in the 1970s. Clinical relevance: Understanding habitual oral hygiene behaviour is essential for improving oral hygiene instruction strategies.
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How fun are your meetings? Investigating the relationship between humor patterns in team interactions and team performance
Authors: Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Allen, J.A. (2014)
Research on humor in organizations has rarely considered the social context in which humor occurs. One such social setting that most of us experience on a daily basis concerns the team context. Building on recent theorizing about the humor–performance link in teams, this study seeks to increase our understanding of the function and effects of humor in team interaction settings. We examined behavioral patterns of humor and laughter in real teams by videotaping and coding humor and laughter during 54 regular organizational team meetings. Performance ratings were obtained immediately following the team meetings as well as at a later time point from the teams’ supervisors. At the behavioral unit level within the team interaction process, lag sequential analysis identified humor and laughter patterns occurring above chance (e.g., a joke followed by laughter, followed by another joke). Moreover, humor patterns triggered positive socioemotional communication, procedural structure, and new solutions. At the team level, humor patterns (but not humor or laughter alone) positively related to team performance, both immediately and 2 years later. Team-level job insecurity climate was identified as a boundary condition: In low job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns were positively related to performance, whereas in high job insecurity climate conditions, humor patterns did not relate to team performance. The role of job insecurity as a boundary condition persisted at both time points. These findings underscore the importance of studying team interactions for understanding the role of humor in organizations and considering team-level boundary conditions over time.
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Einfluss der Tiefen Hirnstimulation auf die Fahrtauglichkeit im Fahrsimulator bei Patienten mit Morbus Parkinson
Authors: Maintz, L. (2014)
Die Hauptbeschwerden bei der Parkinsonschen Erkrankung sind die motorischen Symptome, wie das Zittern und die Muskelsteifheit. Ursache hierfür ist der Dopaminmangel im Gehirn. Mit der Entdeckung des L-Dopa konnte Parkinson-Patienten ein hohes Maß an Lebensqualität zurückgegeben werden. Doch bei der medikamentösen Langzeitbehandlung werden Therapieerfolge durch vermehrte Nebenwirkungen wie Fluktuationen, Dyskinesien und Dystonien begrenzt. Die operative Behandlung stellt hier eine effektive Ergänzung oder Alternative dar. In vielen Fällen kann durch eine Tiefe Hirnstimulation eine entscheidende und anhaltende Besserung der Symptome erreicht werden, die für den Patienten eine starke Einschränkung seiner täglichen Aktivitäten darstellen.
Lebensqualität in Form von Selbständigkeit und Unabhängigkeit beinhaltet für viele auch die Möglichkeit, Autofahren zu können. Die Neurologische Klinik am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf hat im Rahmen einer Studie bei Parkinson-Patienten die Auswirkungen der Tiefen Hirnstimulation auf die Fahrtauglichkeit untersucht. Neben einfachen motorischen Fähigkeiten sollten so kognitive Fähigkeiten wie Aufmerksamkeit, Konzentrationsvermögen, Anpassungsfähigkeit und Reaktionsgeschwindigkeit gemessen werden.
Hierfür sind die Probanden in einem Fahrsimulator unter Einfluss der Hirnstimulation eine vorab definierte Strecke gefahren. Bei der zweiten Fahrt wurde die Stimulation ausgeschaltet, um den Effekt der Stimulation auf das Fahrverhalten zu untersuchen. Der dritte Schritt sollte Aufschlüsse über die möglichen Unterschiede der Fähigkeiten der Probanden bei Stimulation im Gegensatz zur reinen Medikation geben. Dafür blieb bei der dritten Messung die Stimulation ausgeschaltet und es wurde eine individuell bestimmte Mente an L-Dopa verabreicht.
Die Datenaufzeichnung und -auswertung erfolgte mit der Software Mangold INTERACT. In INTERACT wurden das Fahrverhalten aufgrund von Videoaufzeichnungen analysiert und die Fehler kodiert. Das Programm-Modul DataView diente dabei zur graphischen Darstellung der aufgezeichneten Daten des Fahrsimulators. So konnten z.B. Gas- oder Bremssignale synchron zur aufgezeichneten Videodatei analysiert werden.
Die Studie erlaubt erstmals einen Einblick in die Auswirkung der Tiefen Hirnstimulation auf die Fertigkeiten von Parkinson-Patienten beim Führen eines Kraftfahrzeugs. Zusätzlich ermöglicht diese Studie einen Vergleich der Fahrkompetenz unter THS im Gegensatz zum Einfluss unter L-Dopa. Als wichtigste Erkenntnis geht hervor, dass die Probanden unter STN-Stimulation ein deutlich besseres Fahrverhalten zeigten als nach der Gabe von L-Dopa. Da sich unter beiden therapeutischen Maßnahmen die Höhe der Punktezahl in der UPDRS nicht signifikant unterschied, ist davon auszugehen, dass die überlegene Fahrleistung nicht durch eine reine Verbesserung der Motorik, sondern möglicherweise durch Vorteile der THS auf nicht-motorische fahrrelevante Fähigkeiten zurückzuführen ist.
Link zur Dissertation >>>
How young children view mathematical representations: a study using eye-tracking technology
Authors: Bolden, D., Barmby, P., Raine, S., Gardner, M. (2015)
It has been shown that mathematical representations can aid children’s understanding of mathematical concepts but that children can sometimes have difficulty in interpreting them correctly. New advances in eye-tracking technology can help in this respect because it allows data to be gathered concerning children’s focus of attention and so indicate on what aspects of the representations they are focussing. However, recent eye-tracking technology has not been used to any great degree in investigating the way children view and interpret mathematical representations. Purpose: This research explored the use of new advances in eye-tracking technology in investigating how young children view and interpret mathematical representations of multiplication. Sample: Nine Year 5 children (four boys, five girls, aged 9–10 years of age) from a local primary (elementary) school in the North-East of England were asked to complete the test during school time. The children represented a range of attainment levels across the mathematical domain (three higher-, three middle- and three lowerattaining children) and were selected accordingly by their class teacher. We recognise that this study was only based on a small sample of children, however, this number still allowed us to make meaningful comparisons in particular between the different types of representations presented.
Design and methods
The study consisted of each child looking at 18 static slides, one after the other, with each slide presenting a symbolic and a picture representation of multiplication problems. The data that was captured by the eye tracker and recorded was then analysed quantitatively (e.g. time on each slide, time on each area of interest specified within the software) and qualitatively (video recordings of each child’s gaze trajectory during each representation was carried out, thereby allowing a categorisation of the different approaches adopted) using MangoldVision software.
The study showed that (a) the particular form of the number line representation used in this study was less successful than the other picture representations used (equal groups, array) in promoting multiplicative thinking in children, and (b) the success of children to think multiplicatively with the ‘groups’ and the array representation was related to their general mathematics attainment levels.
These findings have implications for teacher practice in that teachers need to be clear about the possible drawbacks of particular representations. Even in using more successful representations, for lower-attaining children, the progression in their understanding of the representation needs to be taken into account by the teacher. The study also highlighted that the eye-tracking technology does have some limitations but is useful in investigating young children’s focus of attention whilst undertaking a mathematics assessment task.
Learning from their own actions: the unique effect of producing actions on infants' action understanding
Authors: Gerson, S., Woodward, A. (2014)
Prior research suggests that infants' action production affects their action understanding, but little is known about the aspects of motor experience that render these effects. In Study 1, the relative contributions of self-produced (n = 30) and observational (n = 30) action experience on 3-month-old infants' action understanding was assessed using a visual habituation paradigm. In Study 2, generalization of training to a new context was examined (n = 30). Results revealed a unique effect of active over observational experience. Furthermore, findings suggest that benefits of trained actions do not generalize broadly, at least following brief training.
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Do maternal interactive behaviors correlate with developmental outcomes and mastery motivation in toddlers with and without motor delay?
Authors: Wang, P., Morgan, G.A., Hwang, A., Chen, L., Liao, H. (2014)
Background: Maternal interactive behaviors theoretically affect developmental outcomes and mastery motivation in young children. However, these associations are inconsistent in the literature.
Objective: The purposes of this study were: (1) to examine the differences in maternal behaviors between toddlers with motor delay (MD) and those with typical development (TD), (2) to investigate the correlation of maternal behaviors and developmental quotients (DQs) in toddlers with MD and TD, and (3) to examine the correlation of maternal behaviors and mastery motivation in toddlers with MD and TD.
Design: This was a sex- and mental age–matched case-control study.
Methods: Twenty-two mother-child dyads of toddlers with MD (ages 23–47 months) and 22 dyads of sex- and mental age–matched toddlers with TD (ages 15–29 months) were recruited. Maternal scores from the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale, 2 indicators of motivation (persistence and mastery pleasure) from individualized mastery tasks and the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire, and DQs from the Comprehensive Developmental Inventory for Infants and Children were assessed.
Results: Mothers of children in the MD group showed significantly lower cognitive growth fostering scores than mothers of children in the TD group. Maternal total scores were significantly correlated with whole DQs in both groups. In the MD group, maternal total scores correlated significantly with DMQ mastery pleasure but not with mastery task motivation.
Limitations: The study design makes it impossible to know the causal relationships between maternal behaviors and children's DQs and motivation.
Conclusions: Mothers of toddlers with MD exhibited less adequate interactive behaviors than mothers of toddlers with TD. Because higher-quality maternal behaviors correlated with higher DQs in the MD group, clinicians should encourage parents to participate in early intervention programs and model high-quality parenting behavior to enhance parents' and children's outcomes.
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Studie: Sparsames Nutzerverhalten senkt Energiekosten um 20 Prozent
Authors: Kauffeld, S., Klonek, F., Endrejat, P. (2014)
EnEff Campus 2020: Erarbeitung und Einsatz von Methoden und Werkzeugen zur nachhaltigen Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz auf dem Campus der TU Braunschweig
Alte Bauten, einfach verglaste Fenster, keine vernünftige Wärmedämmung, veraltete Heiztechnik – das ist gang und gäbe bei öffentlichen Gebäuden. Bemerkbar macht sich dies in steigenden Energiekosten, die den Einrichtungen zu schaffen machen. An der Technischen Universität Braunschweig untersuchen daher Forscher verschiedener Disziplinen, wie man trotz knapper öffentlicher Kassen und damit ohne teure bauliche Maßnahmen die Energiekosten senken kann. Mit im Forscherteam sind neben Architekten, Städteplanern und Elektrotechnikern auch Psychologen, die den wichtigen Faktor Mensch untersuchen.
Beispiel TU Braunschweig: Die 201 Gebäude, über 80 Prozent vor 1980 erbaut, führten in den letzten fünf Jahren zu einem Anstieg der Heizkosten von +17 Prozent und einem Anstieg der Stromkosten von +32 Prozent. Bis 2018 wird ein Anstieg der Energiekosten auf insgesamt über 14 Mio. Euro pro Jahr prognostiziert. Grund genug für die Forscher, ein Pilotprojekt zu starten, durch das der Primärenergieverbrauch um 40% gesenkt werden soll. Das langfristige Ziel ist die Versorgung des Campus mit ausschließlich regenerativer Energie.
Neben der energetischen Optimierung der Gebäude werden auch nutzerbedingte Energieeinsparpotenziale untersucht. Allein durch energiesparendes Verhalten sowie organisatorische Optimierungen sollen so bis zu 20% Energie eingespart werden. Daher sind am Masterplan der TU Braunschweig auch Psychologen beteiligt. Sie entwickeln ein Kommunikationskonzept, wie Nutzer zu energieeffizientem Verhalten motiviert werden können. Mithilfe einer Mangold INTERACT basierten Interaktionsanalyse werden Kommunikationsprozesse zwischen Energie-Coaches und Nutzern dargestellt und evaluiert. Ziel ist die Verankerung eines entsprechenden Kommunikationskonzepts im energetischen Masterplan. In Workshops, Schulungen und Energie-Coachings sollen z.B. Mitarbeiter der Hochschule informiert und motiviert werden, im Arbeitsalltag Energie zu sparen und diese Einstellung auch an andere Nutzer weiterzugeben. Wie die Interaktionsanalyse mit Mangold INTERACT zeigt, ist dabei nicht nur wichtig, was gesagt wird, sondern vor allem, wie etwas gesagt wird, um beim Nutzer keinen Widerstand, sondern Empathie und Veränderungsbereitschaft zu wecken.
Die Ergebnisse können auch auf andere öffentliche Einrichtungen übertragen werden, um zur Senkung von Energiekosten beizutragen.
Auf einer Tagung wurden die Ergebnisse kürzlich präsentiert. Eine detaillierte Dokumentation der Veranstaltung inklusiver aller Forschungsergebnisse ist hier zu finden.
Dynamic synchronous gestures assist word learning in low functioning ASD Children
Authors: Rader, N., Zukow-Goldring, P., Miller, S. (2013)
Using eye-tracking technology, we looked at the effect of a speaker's gestures on word learning in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) children 5-8 years old and typically developing children (TD) 2-6 years old. When the speaker statically held an object as it was named, the ASD children performed similarly to two-year-old children. However, with a dynamic gesture, the ASD children performed as well as children 4-6 years old. These results suggest that ASD children can benefit from the stimulus-driven attention provided by the dynamic gesture.
The test children (ASD and TD) viewed a video showing a speaker introducing two novel objects using either a static or dynamic show gesture. After the speaker introduced the two objects using nonce words, word learning was assessed. A Mangold Eye Tracking System was used to collect eye gaze data. The measurement used was a ratio consisting of correct looks over total looks during a test of word learning. Therefore, a higher ratio represents attention to the correct object then the word is spoken.
With a dynamic show gesture, the ASD children's word learning was as good as that of the oldest typically developing children, while it was similar to the youngest age group for the static gesture condition. These results suggest that word learning for ASD children could be aided by use of show gestures in a way that is true for much younger children. It may be the case that the motion in the show gesture produces stimulus-driven attention that assists the ASD children in attending at the critical time when they view the object and hear its word.
Poster download (presented at SRCD 2013)
Positioning of term infants during delivery room routine handling - analysis of videos
Authors: Konstantelos, D., Gurth, H., Bergert, R., Ifflaender, S. & Rüdiger, M. (2014)
Delivery room management (DR) of the newly born infant should be performed according to international guidelines, but no recommendations are available for an infant’s position immediately after birth. The present study was performed to answer the following questions: 1. How often is DR-management performed in term infants in side position? 2. Is routine DR-management possible in side position? 3. Is there any benefit of side position with respect to agitation or vital parameters?
Cross-sectional study of video-recorded DR-management in term newborns delivered by C-section in 2012. Videos were analysed for infant’s position, administered interventions, vital parameters and agitation.
187 videos were analysed. The Main Position (defined as position spent more than 70% of the time) was “supine” in 91, “side” in 63 and “not determinable” in 33 infants. “Supine” infants received significantly (p < 0.001) more often stimulation (12.5% of the total time) than “side” infants (3.9% of time). There were no differences between both groups with regard to suctioning; CPAP was exclusively (98%) administered in supine position. Newborns on side were less agitated than those on supine. There was a trend towards a better oxygenation in “side” positioned infants (p = 0.055) and significantly (p = 0.04) higher saturation values in “left-sided” infants than “right-sided” infants at 8th minute. “Side” positioned infants reached oxygen saturation values >90% earlier than “supine” positioned infants (p = 0.16).
DR-management is feasible in the side position in term infants. Side position seems to be associated with reduced agitation and improved oxygenation. However, it remains unclear whether this represents a causal relationship or an association. The study supports the need for a randomized controlled trial.
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Suctioning habits in the delivery room and the influence on postnatal adaptation - a video analysis
Authors: Konstantelos, D., Ifflaender, S., Dinger, J., Rüdiger, M. (2014)
The aim was to determine how often infants are suctioned during delivery and how often it affects the neonate.
Methods Single-center analysis of video-recorded delivery room management after c-section from January 2012 until April 2013. Time point, duration, and frequency of suctioning in term and preterm newborns were analyzed along with vital parameters (heart rate HR and saturation values).
Results Three hundred forty-six videos were analyzed with the software Mangold INTERACT. Twenty-three percent of term and 66% of preterm newborns were suctioned. Newborns were suctioned up to 14 times; total duration spent for suctioning was between 2 and 154 s. Suctioning before face mask application occurred in 31% of the suctioned newborns requiring respiratory support. No severe bradycardia (<60 bpm) was noticed. Suctioning did not have an effect on HR and saturation in preterm infants but was associated with significantly higher HR in term infants requiring respiratory support. Term infants who did not require respiratory support showed significantly higher saturation values at 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 min if they were not suctioned.
Conclusions Suctioning of newborns in the delivery room does not adhere to recommendations of international guidelines. However, previously described side effects of suctioning could not be confirmed.
Journal of Perinatal Medicine. ISSN (Print) 0300-5577, DOI: 10.1515/jpm-2014-0188. October 2014
Coaches and Clients in Action: A Sequential Analysis of Interpersonal Coach and Client Behavior
Authors: Ianiro, P.M., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N. & Kauffeld, S. (2014)
Despite calls for studying interaction processes in coaching, little is known about the link between coach-client interactions and coaching success. In particular, interpersonal behavior in coaching remains unexplored, although it is considered highly relevant to social relationships and interaction outcomes. This study takes first steps to adress this gap. The study examines the dynamics of coaches' and clients' interpersonal behavior based on the two basic dimensions affiliation and dominance. Furthermore, the link between emergent interpersonal behavior patterns and coaching outcomes is investigated. To this end, a total of 11,095 behavioral acts nested in 30 coach-client dyads were videotaped and analyzed. Sequential analysis showed that reciprocal friendliness patterns were positively linked to working alliance. Coaches' dominant-friendly interaction behavior particularly activated clients, in terms of showing dominance during the coaching interaction process. Clients' dominance was linked to their overall goal attainment. The results highlight the importance of interpersonal behavior for coaching success. Specifically, the findings suggest that dominance interaction patterns are context- and relation-specific, offering an explanation for contradicting empirical studies on interpersonal dominance. For coaches, the study implies that high awareness for interpersonal signals can help establish a positive atmosphere and activate clients' dominance. This empirical study uses behavior observation and interaction analysis to understand the interpersonal dynamics during coaching sessions.
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Methodological Considerations for Investigating the Microdynamics of Social Interaction Development
Authors: de Barbaro, K., Forster, D., Johnson, C.M. & Deak, G.O. (2013)
Infants are biologically prepared to learn complex behaviors by interacting in dynamic, responsive social environments. Although the importance of interactive social experiences has long been recognized, current methods for studying complex multimodal interactions are lagging. This paper outlines a systems approach for characterizing fine-grained temporal dynamics of developing social interaction. We provide best practices for capturing, coding, and analyzing interaction activity on multiple-temporal scales, from fractions of seconds (e.g. gaze shifts), to minutes (e.g. coordinated play episodes), to weeks or months (e.g. developmental change). IEEE Transactions on Autonomous Mental Development, 5(3), 258-270
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Assessing Motivational Interviewing 2.0: An illustration of software-supported coding schemes
Authors: Klonek, F., Kauffeld, S. (2014)
Scholars in Motivational Interviewing (MI) have developed several coding schemes to assess treatment adherence, client language, and sequential dynamics. Traditionally, these coding schemes have been administered with paper and pencil. The presentation introduces implementations of software-supported MI coding schemes and discusses how software-implementation facilitates coding work, while still capturing the sequential timed-event data of the dyadic interaction. Furthermore, it is presented how coding instruments can be economized by means of a thin behavior slicing procedure. Data originated from a study with MI trained interviewers who discussed sustainable use of environmental resources as a target behavior with their respective clients. First, it is presented how branchedchain coding can be used to familiarize inexperienced observers with the MI Skill Code. Second, it is calculated two observer agreement measures of fourteen double-coded sessions for the MI Treatment Integrity Code (MITI): Time-unit kappa and Intraclass correlation. Third, the researchers extracted thin behavior slices (ten minutes) and compared their MITI code statistics with the entire session. Results show that Kappa indices are more conservative reliability estimates than Intraclass correlations. Furthermore, thin behavior slicing revealed that only 10-minutes can provide accurate estimates for MITI verbal behavior codes. The researchers discuss costs and benefits of software-supported coding schemes. Presentation at the ICMI International Conference on Motivational Interviewing, Amsterdam, June 16-18, 2014.Download
Comparison of Emotion Co-Regulation between Families of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Families of Typically Developing Children
Authors: Goldberg, W., Guo, Y., Gutierrez, S., Merrell, S., House, S., Fraher, T., Tsai, S., Kim, S., Garcia, M., Garibay, C., Martinez, P. Davia, S. (2014)
Poster presented at UROP, University of California, Irvine, May 2014Download
Dynamics of Resistance to Change: A Sequential Analysis of Change Agents in Action
Authors: Klonek, F., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Kauffeld, S. (2014)
Despite consensus that successful change management depends on how change is communicated to employees, the dynamic communication process between change agents and recipients remains largely unexplored. We discuss how change language can capture recipients’ resistance to and readiness for change, in terms of change versus sustain talk, and adopt a coding instrument from clinical psychology (Motivational Interviewing Skill Code, MISC). We explore whether autonomy-restrictive change agent behaviors may contribute to resistance to change. In a preliminary study, we demonstrate the applicability of the MISC for studying ambivalence in change-related interactions. Next, in a quantitative study of 28 dyadic interactions from a student sample, we examine how change agent behaviors elicit recipients’ resistance during the interaction flow, using lag sequential analysis. Our findings show that autonomy-restrictive agent behaviors evoke sustain talk. Recipients’ sustain talk in turn evokes autonomy-restrictive agent behavior. We discuss implications for conceptualizing resistance to change as a dynamically emerging conversational construct and point out practical implications for change agents.
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Watching how they are talking - Analyzing verbal behavior in two non-residential building projects to save energy by means of user participation
Authors: Klonek, F., Kauffeld, S., Plesser, S. & Görtgens, A. (2014)
When organizations implement energy saving measures, building users are not always ready for the organisational change process (By, 2007). While user motivation is crucial for facilitating the change process, resistance to change inhibits well-intended measures. Many organizations use participatory interventions in order to increase participation and motivation of building users (Kauran, 2013; Griesel, 2004). We propose a behavioral approach to measure motivation and resistance to change in terms of the observable verbal behavior: While “change talk” expresses the willingness to adopt behavioral changes, “sustain talk” expresses resistance and signals that any efforts to promote behavior change are worthless. Our approach focuses on the dynamic interactions between change agents and building users. Therefore, we apply interaction analysis – a scientific procedure that allows investigating communication exchange on an utterance-by-utterance level (Mangold, 2010). We show that this method is particularly useful to understand how to increase users’ participation and user motivation within energy saving projects.Download
Poster presented at the BEHAVE Conference, Oxford, September 2014
Development of a Culturally Sensitive Research Methodology in Early Communication and Language Development
Authors: Frank, B., Polzin, C., Semkiwa, J. & Lüdtke, U.
Poster presented at the 5th East African Conference on Communication Disability, Mombasa, Kenya, September 2013Download
From Interactions to Conversations: The Development of Joint Engagement During Early Childhood
Authors: Adamson, L.B., Bakeman, R., Deckner, D.F., Nelson, P.B.
This research traces the development of symbol-infused joint engagement during mother–child interactions into the preschool years. Forty-nine children, who had been previously observed as toddlers (L. B. Adamson, R. Bakeman, & D. F. Deckner, ), were systematically observed during interactions with their mothers at ages 3½, 4½, and 5½ during activities related to the past and future, internal states, and graphic systems. Although the amount of symbol-infused joint engagement reached a ceiling by 3½, its focus continued to become more complex and its form more balanced. Individual differences in children's symbol-infused joint engagement were stable across 4 years. These findings highlight both how joint engagement is transformed as conversational skills develop and how it remains rooted in earlier interactions and supported by caregiver's actions.
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Prenatal programming of emotion regulation: Neonatal reactivity as a differential susceptibility factor moderating the outcome of prenatal cortisol levels
Authors: Bolten, M., Nast, I., Skrundz, M., Stadler, C., Hellhammer, D., Meinlschmidt, G.
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation during pregnancy is linked to dysfunctional behavioral outcomes in the offspring. According to Belsky's differential susceptibility hypothesis, individuals vary regarding their developmental plasticity. Translating the differential susceptibility hypothesis to the field of fetal programming, we hypothesize that infants' temperament, as the constitutionally based reactivity to stimulation, moderates prenatal environmental effects on postnatal emotion regulation.
Maternal HPA axis activity and stress-reactivity during pregnancy was estimated, by measuring cortisol concentrations in saliva, collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after awakening and in blood, collected during a laboratory stress test (Trier Social Stress Test), respectively. Newborns reactivity to stimulation was evaluated between postnatal day 10 and 14 using the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale. Infant's self-quieting-activities, as an indicator of emotion regulation, were evaluated at the age of six months during the still face paradigm.
Maternal cortisol reactivity to stress during pregnancy was associated with infant's emotion regulation at the age of six months. Whereas cortisol levels after awakening in mid and late pregnancy were not associated with emotion regulation. Furthermore, regression analyses revealed that in interaction with neonatal reactivity, both, prenatal maternal HPA activity as well as prenatal maternal HPA reactivity to stress predicted emotion regulation. The findings indicate that newborns' reactivity to stimulation is moderating the association between prenatal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids and emotion regulation in infancy. Data suggests that temperamental characteristics of the newborn are a relevant differential susceptibility factor with regard to prenatal effects on emotion regulation.
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From Action to Interaction: Infant Object Exploration and Mothers' Contigent Responsiveness
Authors: Tamis-LeMonda, C.S., Kuchirko, Y., Tafuro, L.
We examined maternal contingent responsiveness to infant object exploration in 190 mother-infant pairs from diverse cultural communities. Dyads were video-recorded during book-sharing and play when infants were 14 mo. Researchers coded the temporal onsets and offsets of infant and mother object exploration and mothers' referential (e.g., “That's a bead”) and regulatory (e.g., “Stop it”) language. The times when infant or mother were neither exploring objects nor communicating were classified as “off task.” Sequential analysis was used to examine whether certain maternal behaviors were more (or less) likely to follow infant object exploration relative to chance, to one another, and to times when infants were off task. Mothers were more likely to explore objects and use referential language in response to infant object exploration than to use regulatory language or be off task, and maternal behaviors were reduced in the context of infants being off task. Additionally, mothers coordinated their object exploration with referential language specifically; thus, mothers' responses to infants were didactic and multimodal. Infant object exploration elicits reciprocal object exploration and informative verbal input from mothers, illustrating the active role infants play in their social experiences.
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Individualized Behavioral Assessments and Maternal Ratings of Mastery Motivation in Mental Age-Matched Toddlers with and without Motor Delay
Authors: Wang, Pei-Jung, Morgan, George A., Hwang, Ai-Wen und Liao, Hua-Fang
Mastery motivation is a precursor of future developmental outcomes. Evidence about whether toddlers with motor delay have lower mastery motivation is inconclusive.
The purpose of his study was to examine differences between mental age-matched toddlers with and without motor delay on various mastery motivation indicators. A mental age- and sex-matched case-control study was performed. Twenty-two children with motor delay, aged 23 to 47 months, and 22 childen who were developing typically, aged 15 to 29 months, were recruited. Persistence and mastery pleasure were measured with behavioral tasks that were moderately challenging for each child and with maternal ratings using the Dimensions of Mastery Questionnaire (DMQ). The DMQ was rated by each child's mother based on her perception of her child's motivation. Two types of structured tasks (a puzzle and a cause-effect toy selected to be moderately challenging for each child) were administered in a laboratory setting and recorded on videos. Paired t tests or Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to examine group differences in persistence and mastery pleasure.
Children with motor delay were rated lower on DMQ persistence than the typically developing group, but they did not show significantly lower persistence on the structured tasks. There were no significant differences in mastery pleasure between the two groups on either measure. Toddlers with motor delay did not show longer persistence and pleasure when given tasks that were moderately challenging; however, their mothers tended to view them as having lower motivation. Clinicans and parents should provide appropriately challenging tasks to increase children's success and motivation.
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Early Dialogs between Mother and Infant. A Study on the Situation of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants in the Process of Early Education
Authors: Horsch, Ursula
From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their infant. They introduce as well other people as the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogical way. Proceeding hand in hand they pass on basic dialogical competences which are responsible for the development of Early Education.Download
The research project Dialogic Development of Infants (Horsch et al. since 2004) addresses the broad dialogic development of parents and infants within the first 18 months of life. Our objective is to describe these preverbal dialogs and their relevance for processes of education. The following presented research project is realized in Germany, but we just start at SEKOMU with this study. So we are able to take the pictures out of the SEKOMU project.
Particular emphasis will be placed on these dialogic elements: vocalisation of the infants, dialogic echo and greeting behaviour of the parents and motherese/fatherese. The empirical date is derived from a longitudinal study within the first 18 months of the infant´s life. The data is collected monthly by video recording in a natural setting. Computerized analyses (interact) are used for the evaluation of the data to study the correlations among the dialogic elements.
The significant correlations of infants with normal hearing are compared with the data of the deaf or hard of hearing infants and are discussed in relation to aspects of Bildung.
Driving and Hindering Forces in Group Discussions: Analyzing Change and Sustain Talk in a Software Engineering Project
Authors: Paulsen, H., Klonek, F.E., Meinecke, A., Schneider, K., Liskin, O. & Kauffeld, S.
Poster presented at the INTER.COM Symposium, Braunschweig, 2013.Download
Act4leadership: Introducing a new coding scheme for analyzing leader-follower-interactions
Authors: Meinecke, A.L., Wachsmuth, D. & Kauffeld, S.
Poster presented at the INTER.COM Symposium, Braunschweig, 2013.Download
A Sequential Analysis of Procedural Meeting Communication: How Teams Facilitate Their Meetings
Authors: Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Allen, J.A., Kauffeld, S.
How do teams facilitate their own meetings? Unmanaged (or free) social interaction often leads to poor decision-making, unnecessary conformity, social loafing, and ineffective communication processes, practices, and products. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential benefits of procedural communication in team meetings. The role of procedural communication, defined as verbal behaviors that structure group discussion to facilitate goal accomplishment, was examined in 59 team meetings from 19 organizations. Meeting behaviors were videotaped and coded. Lag sequential analysis revealed that procedural meeting behaviors are sustained by supporting statements within the team interaction process. They promote proactive communication (e.g., who will do what and when) and significantly inhibit dysfunctional meeting behaviors (e.g., losing the train of thought, criticizing others, and complaining). These patterns were found both at lag1 and lag2. Furthermore, the more evenly distributed procedural meeting behaviors were across team members, the more team members were satisfied with their discussion processes and outcomes. For practice, these findings suggest that managers should encourage procedural communication to enhance meeting effectiveness, and team members should share the responsibility of procedurally facilitating their meetings.
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Do I need, am I able to... and do I even want to change? Which potential does Motivational Interviewing offer for organizations
Authors: Klonek, F.E., Kauffeld, S.
Organizational, team or individual change projects are highly dependent upon the motivation of the affected employees. Motivational Interviewing (MI) offers a promising method to initiate and accompany change management projects. Evidence from clinical psychology shows that MI stimulates change by evoking change talk and reducing sustain talk - two psycholinguistic constructs. In this paper, we want to discuss - based on the existing research and an expert workshop - benefits and possible applications of MI for organizations. By means of three examples from interaction analysis, we can show how coaches, facilitators and executives can implement principles of MI. Finally, we introduce two German versions of MI observation methods that help to objectively assess motivational interaction processes. Preliminary data shows that there is still a lack of motivational techniques within the observed interaction processes.Download
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Physiological regulation in infants of women with a mood disorder: examining associations with maternal symptoms and stress
Authors: Johnson, K.C., Brennan, P.A., Stowe, Z.N., Leibenluft, E. & Newport, D.J.
The offspring of mothers with mood disorders may evidence increased behavioral problems as early as preschool; however, no study to date has examined psychophysiological characteristics during infancy, particularly among offspring of mothers diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Elucidating psychobiological mechanisms of risk early in development is critical to inform prevention and early intervention efforts.
This study compared physiological and behavioral responsivity in 6-month-old infants (N = 329) of mothers with lifetime histories of bipolar disorder (BD, n = 44), major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 244), or no history of Axis I disorders (CTL, n = 41). Infant respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was measured in a laboratory stressor paradigm. Measures of infant affect and behavior during mother–infant interaction, current maternal depressive symptoms, and exposure to stressful life events were examined with respect to diagnostic group and RSA.
Groups did not differ in baseline RSA or infant affect measures. However, during the stressor task, infants of mothers with BD evidenced increases in RSA, while infants of MDD and CTL mothers evidenced decreases in RSA. Though levels of postnatal stress and current levels of maternal depressive symptoms differed among groups, neither of these factors predicted infant psychophysiological responses.
At 6 months of age, infants of mothers with BD show differences in psychophysiological regulation. These differences cannot be accounted for by perinatal outcome, current maternal depressive symptoms, or exposure to stressful life events, and thus may reflect endophenotypic markers of psychopathological risk.
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The joint role of trained, untrained, and observed actions at the origins of goal recognition
Authors: Gerson, S.A., Woodward, A.L.
Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life.
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Twelve-month "social revolution" emerges from mother-infant sensory-motor coordination: A longitudinal investigation
Authors: de Barbaro, K., Johnson, C., Deak, G.O.
Previous accounts of the development of triadic attention identify a ‘‘curious’’ shift around nine to twelve months. We introduce a novel approach inspired by distributed and embodied cognition frameworks. In a longitudinal study of five mother-infant dyads, videos of home play interactions were recorded over the infants’ first year. We scrutinized the real-time organization of mother-infant sensorimotor activity, including the targets of hands, gaze, and mouth, as the dyad members attended to one another and
to toys. We identified a pervasive developmental pattern: At four months, infants converged all sensory modalities on objects introduced by the mother. From six to twelve months, infants showed increasing decoupling of hands and eyes and increasingly elaborate sequences in multi -object play. Concurrently, dyads engaged in increasingly elaborate social exchanges (e.g., turn-taking) as mothers adapted to infants’ sensorimotor skills. We therefore theorize that triadic attention emerges not as a novel form of social cognition but as a continuous product of sensorimotor development, scaffolded by parents’ expanding social actions.
Micro-analysis of infant looking in a naturalistic social setting: Insights from biologically based models of attention
Authors: de Barbaro, K., Chiba, A., Deak, G.O.
A current theory of attention posits that several micro-indices of attentional vigilance are dependent on activation of the locus coeruleus, a brainstem nucleus that regulates cortical norepinephrine activity (Aston-Jones et al., 1999). This theory may account for many findings in the infant literature, while highlighting important new areas for research and theory on infant attention. We examined the visual behaviors of n = 16 infants (6–7 months) while they attended to multiple spatially distributed
targets in a naturalistic environment. We coded four measures of attentional vigilance, adapted from studies of norepinergic modulation of animal attention: rate of fixations, duration of fixations, latency to reorientation, and target ‘hits’. These measures showed a high degree of coherence in individual infants, in parallel with findings from animal studies. Results also suggest that less vigilant infants showed greater habituation to the trial structure and more attentiveness to less salient stimuli during periods of high attentional competition. This pattern of results is predicted by the Aston-Jones model of attention, but could not be explained by the standard information processing model.
When is the "chemistry" right in Coaching? Publication with Coach - Client Relationship
Authors: Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld, Dipl. Psych. Patrizia Ianiro, Dipl. Psych. Carsten Schermuly
There is growing evidence that coaching is effective. However, little is known about the process variables critical for coaching success. Friendliness, openness and empathy are important. However, they do not necessarily lead to a sustainable and trusting relationship between coach and client.
A recent publication by Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld, Patrizia Ianiro and Carsten Schermuly examines the contribution of the behavioral dimensions “affiliation” and “dominance” for a positive coaching relationship and coaching success. Affiliation includes the friendliness. Dominance is the sovereign, self-confident attitude that the client expects of the coach. The client wants to be led by the coaching process, which is also required by the coach. But how dominant should the coach be?
For the study, coaching sessions were evaluated by video analysis with the Mangold INTERACT Software. The analysis shows that coach and client do not differ much from each other concerning affiliation dimensions – both show a similar kind.
There were major differences in dominance behavior. The study concludes that coaching will be particularly successful when coach and client show a similar dominance behavior. Although the client wants to be led, he is also aware of his own essential contribution in the success of the coaching. He would like to be acknowledged at “eye-level” with the coach. This contributes to the fact that the relationship is perceived by the client as being particularly constructive and successful.
Link to article in the Journal "Coaching"
Studie mit Mangold INTERACT: Nutzerbedingte Energieeinsparpotentiale aktivieren
Authors: Dipl. Psych. Florian Klonek, Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld
Energiebedarf senken - ohne umfangreiche InvestitionenDownload
Nicht immer sind große Investitionen notwendig, um Energie einzusparen. Gerade bei großen Dienstleistungsbetrieben (z.B. Krankenhäusern, Universitäten) kann bei laufendem Betrieb durch energiesparendes Verhalten sowie durch technische und organisatorische Betriebsoptimierungen bis zu 20% Energie eingespart werden. Ein von der EU gefördertes Pilotprojekt, das Projektpartner in 8 Ländern einbezieht, untersucht diese Einsparpotenziale: "Re-Co - Smart Energy Saving".
Bei der Umsetzung der Energieeinsparpotenziale ist die Nutzermotivation ein entscheidender Faktor. Ein Projektbestandteil von Re-Co ist daher die Entwicklung eines Kommunikationskonzepts unter Einbeziehung der Nutzer zur gemeinsamen Erarbeitung von verhaltensändernden Maßnahmen. Ziel ist es, durch langfristige Verhaltensänderungen und Sensibilisierung einen "energieeffizienten" Arbeitsalltag zu schaffen.
Kommunikation und Motivation
Prof. Dr. Simone Kauffeld und Dipl. Psych. Florian Klonek vom Institut für Psychologie der TU Braunschweig untersuchen in einer aktuellen Studie, wie Nutzer für Energiesparziele gewonnen und motiviert werden können. Mithilfe einer von Mangold INTERACT basierten Interaktionsanalyse werden Kommunikationsmuster zwischen Re-Co-Beratern und Nutzern dargestellt und interpretiert. Anhand verschiedener Szenarien zeigt die Studie, wie stark Projekte von der mikroverbalen Kommunikationsebene abhängen und gibt wertvolle Hinweise, wie Energieberater mit Kunden und Nutzern gewinnbringend kommunizieren können.
Multiple research articles on comparative differential and personality psychology
Authors: Jana Uher
Multiple research articles on comparative differential and personality psychology. Research into primate personality and social relationships.
Link to "Primate Personality Net"
Speaking Up Is Related to Better Team Performance in Simulated Anesthesia Inductions: An Observational Study
Authors: Michaela Kolbe, Michael J. Burtscher, Johannes Wacker, Bastian Grande, Renata Nohynkova, Tanja Manser, Donat R. Spahn, Gudela Grote
Thegoal in this study was to test the relationship between speaking up—i.e., questioning, correcting, or clarifying a current procedure—and technical team performance in anesthesia.
Hypothesis 1: team members’ higher levels of speaking up are related to higher levels of technical team performance.
Hypothesis 2: team members will react to speaking up by either clarifying their procedure or initiating a procedural change.
Hypothesis 3: higher levels of speaking up during an earlier phase of teamwork will be related to higher levels of speaking up during a later phase.
This report was previously presented, in part, at the fourth International Workshop: Behavioural Science Applied to Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; sixth Annual SIOP Conference, Chicago, IL; and 10th International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making, Orlando, FL. Parts of the raw data were also used for an analysis of interactions of team mental models and monitoring behaviors.
Link to "Anesthesia & Analgesia" journal
Gaze Patterns to a Speaker's Face in Typically Developing and ASD Children
Authors: Elician Celine Wartman, Nancy Riccardi, Nancy Rader
To study attention to a speaker in typically developing (TD) children and children with autism (ASD), we tested TD children in three age groups and one group of ASD children. The younger TD children and the ASD children spent less time looking at the speaker than the older TD children. ASD children also spent less time looking at the eyes than the mouth compared to age-similar TD children. These results reveal differences between age-similar TD children and in children with ASD in selective attention to a speaker’s face. The ASD looking pattern was most like that of TD toddlers. Poster Presentation at EPA, Pittsburg, USA, 2012Download
Looking Away from the Speaker's Mouth: A Developmental Shift from Infancy to Preschool
Authors: Nancy Rader, Patricial Zukow-Goldring, Elizabeth Stuprich, Michelle Rhoades
Our research examined where infants and children focus their attention when viewing a speaker. We hypothesized that infants would spend more time looking at the speaker’s mouth than the eyes, while preschool children would spend more time looking at the speaker’s eyes than the mouth. Using eye tracking technology, we measured gaze duration to the eyes and mouth of the speaker. The results supported our hypothesis.Download
Poster Presentation at SRCD, Montreal, Canada, 2011
Fetal Exposure to Synthetic Oxytocin and Relationship with Prefeeding (PF) Cues Within One Hour Postbirth
Authors: Aleeca Bell, Kristin Rankin, Rosemary White-Traut
We introduce a new coding schema of prefeeding (PF) cues to explore whether fetal exposure to synthetic oxytocin (Pitocin) during labor is associated with the infant’s level of prefeeding organization shortly after birth.Download
Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012
"Follow my lead": What follows after one child's initiative in preschooler triads in a cooperative task?
Authors: Paula Döge, Heidi Keller
Peer interactions play an important role in children‘s everyday life in institutional daycare. Sustaining social interactions requires skills as attending to the interaction partner(s), mastering turn-taking and prosocial behavior (Fabes, Martin & Hanish, 2011). If cooperation is needed to master a task, these skills become even more important.Download
Peer triads represent a complex setting of interactional possibilities of all three children (Ishikawa & Hay, 2006). Initiatives constitute starting points to analyze how social interaction is negotiated in a cooperative task. By suggesting how to proceed one child offers opportunities for social practices. The other children’s reactions to the initiative are indicative for the involvement and social structure.
We therefore ask:
(1) To what extent and how are initiatives responded to by the other group members?
(2) Are there differences between boy and girl groups?
(3) What behavioral interaction sequence follows each initiative?
Poster Presentation at ISSBD Biennial Meeting, Edmonton, Canada, 2012
Rationality or Resonance? Eight-month-olds Copy Outcomes Rather Than Actions
Authors: Rebecca G. Sperotto, Elma Hilbrink, Elena Sakkalou, Kate Ellis-Davies, Merideth Gattis
Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012Download
Infants' Attention Patterns to People and Objects: Longitudinal Relations to Cortisol and a-Amylase
Authors: Corrine J. Zavala, Kaya de Barbaro, Andrea Chiba, Srikrishna Khandrika, Gedeon O. Deák
The current study aims to relate past animal and adult research on physiologically mediated vigilance to patters of infant attention. Infants at 6, 7 and 12 month performed a gaze- and point-cue following task in a controlled laboratory environment.Download
Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012
The Context of Early Helping Behavior
Authors: Audun Dahl, Rachel K. Schuck, C. Jennifer Hung, Alison Hsieh, Joseph J. Campos
Past research tell us little about young children't experiences with helping. The current studies represent two investigations of the context of helping behavior in everyday life during the second year.Download
Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012
Domain Differences in Early Prohibitive Interactions
Authors: Audun Dahl, Joseph J. Campos, Elliot Turiel
Are domain differences in social interactions present already in the beginning of the second year, after the onset of walking? Are domain differences limited to verbal justifications provided in response to transgressions, or are such differences also evident in other aspects of prohibitive interactions?Download
Poster Presentation at ICIS, Minneapolis, USA, 2012
Successful Potsdam early intensive home-training for parents of autistic children - Comparison of training and control waiting group
Authors: Helmut Ott, Claire Molnar, Renate Frost, Juliane Höpfner, Asimwe Paehl
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) benefit from a behavior therapeutical early support in combination with an intensive parental home-training (20h/week for 12 month).Download
The Stability of Infant Preferences for Socially Based Attention: Observational, Experimental and Longitudinal Analysis
Authors: Kate Ellis-Davies, Elena Sakkalou, Nia Fowler, Elma Hilbrink, Merideth Gattis
The current study aims to explre the stability of social preferences across time and context using mother-infant interactions, experimental tasks and parental reports.Download
39 mothers were recruited during the last trimester of pregnancy for the First Steps Longitudinal Study. All participants were singletons and born at term.
Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011
Children's coping strategies and stress regulation during the transition from home to child care
Authors: Tina Eckstein, Lieselotte Ahnert, Gregor Kappler
For some years, students of behavioral development have acknowledged early childhood as a period during which the main coping strategies in life develop in order to regulate negative emotions. Whilst experimental research in laboratories shows whether and how, young children cope with evoked frustrations or irritations, much less is known about how children deal with significant situations that occur naturally in their daily lives. The present study therefore aims to investigate how children cope when they are taken into child care, wondering whether specific behavioral patterns could be identified that aid children in their struggle to cope with the new environment and how these coping strategies influence the physiological stress regulation as reflected in diurnal cortisol patterns.Download
Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011
Assessing Joint Engagement in Toddlers: Observations and Ratings Compared
Authors: Roger Bakeman, Lauren B. Adamson, P. Brooke Nelson, Nevena Dimitrova
Systematic Observation Takes Time:Download
Observation of children's social behavior - asking trained and reliable observers to assign behavioral codes to event or time intervals - is a common measurement strategy among behavioral scientists.
Poster Presentation at SRCD Biennial Meeting, Montreal, Canada, 2011
Educational moments in the early parent-child-dialog - Early Childhood Educational-research on the basis of INTERACT analysis
Authors: Ursula Horsch
Our goal is to conduct comparative educational-research with children with and without disabilities. The research projects Babywatching – infant research (1999-2003), dialogical development in infants (Horsch et al. 2004-2008) as well as the research project early childhood Bildung in hearing impaired children that began in 2008 (Horsch et al. 2008-2011) pursue the questions of early childhood education for the first time within a framework of extensive international studies. They study the connection between the development of relationship and dialog within early parent-child-interactions and the therein possible early educational processes in the age range of zero to two years. We have used the listening age as a basis for children with hearing loss. Therefore the age limit is elevated by up to two years (Horsch, Scheele, Roth, Schulze, Fürst 2009).Download
Short Communication - Adult gaze influences infant attention and object processing: implications for cognitive neuroscience
Authors: Vincent M. Reid, Tricia Striano
Infants follow others’ gaze toward external objects from early in ontogeny, but whether they use others’ gaze in processing information about objects remains unknown. In Experiment 1, 4-month-old infants viewed a video presentation of an adult gazing toward one of two objects. When presented with the same objects alone a second time, infants looked reliably less at the object to which the adult had directly gazed (cued object). This suggests that the uncued object was perceived as more novel than the object previously cued by the adult’s gaze. In Experiment 2, adult gaze was not directed towards any object. In this control experiment, infants looked at both objects equally in the test phase. These findings show that adult eye gaze biases infant visual attention and information processing. Implications of the paradigm for cognitive neuroscience are presented and the results are discussed in terms of neural structures and change over ontogeny.
Link to Publication at Infancy Research Website
Sympathy Through Affective Perspective Taking and Its Relation to Prosocial Behavior in Toddlers
Authors: Amrisha Vaish, Malinda Carpenter, Michael Tomasello
In most research on the early ontogeny of sympathy, young children are presented with an overtly distressed person and their responses are observed. In the current study, the authors asked whether young children could also sympathize with a person to whom something negative had happened but who was expressing no emotion at all. They showed 18- and 25-month-olds an adult either harming another adult by destroying or taking away her possessions (harm condition) or else doing something similar that did not harm her (neutral condition). The “victim” expressed no emotions in either condition. Nevertheless, in the harm as compared with the neutral condition, children showed more concern and subsequent prosocial behavior toward the victim. Moreover, children’s concerned looks during the harmful event were positively correlated with their subsequent prosocial behavior. Very young children can sympathize with a victim even in the absence of overt emotional signals, possibly by some form of affective perspective taking.
Link to Publication at APA - American Psychological Association
An Augmented Toy and Social Interaction in Children with Autism
Authors: Steve Hinske, William Farr and Nicola Yuill
An Augmented Knights Castle (AKC) play set was adapted so that children with autism can configure programmable elements. This is compared with a non-configurable AKC and when the AKC set is switched-off. When the system is configurable, and when it is switched on, less solitary play and more cooperative play occur. Digital toys, and their configurability are key factors in design for children with autism allowing greater individual control and more socially oriented behaviour. We suggest that tangibles provide a safety net for encouraging social interaction as they allow for a broad range of interaction styles.Download
Father-infant interaction patterns as precursors of children's later externalizing behavior problems
Authors: P. Trautmann-Villalba, M. Gschwendt, M. H. Schmidt, M. Laucht
This study examined the extend to which fathers' and infants' interaction behavior were related to children's externalizing behavior problems at age 8 and 11 years.
Maternal bond and mother-child interaction in severe postpartum psychiatric disorders: Is there a link?
Authors: P. Trautmann-Villalba, Ch. Hornstein, E. Hohm, E. Rave, S. Wortmann-Fleischer, M. Schwarz
Mothers in the puerperium are vulnerable to a wide spectrum of postpartum psychiatric disorders. One of the central psychological processes of the puerperium is the development of an emotional relationship with the baby. The bond on the infant as well as the interaction with the baby are two aspects of the mother-infant relationship that can be disturbed by mothers with postpartum psychiatric disorders.Download
Do as I do: 7-month-old infants selectively reproduce others' goal
Authors: J. Kiley Hamlin, Elizabeth V. Hallinan, Amanda L. Woodward
In this study, they tested whether 7-month-old infants would selectively imitate the goal-relevant aspects of an observed action. Infants saw an experimenter perform an action on one of two small toys and then were given the opportunity to act on the toys. Infants viewed actions that were either goal-directed or goal-ambiguous, and that represented either completed or uncompleted goals. Infants reproduced the goal of the experimenter only in those cases where the action was goal-directed, in both the complete and incomplete goal conditions. These results provide the first evidence that infants as young as 7 months of age selectively imitate actions based on their goal-directedness, and that they are able to analyze the goals of even uncompleted actions. Even during the first year of life, infants' sensitivity to goal-directed action is expressed not only in their responses in visual habituation procedures, but also in their overt actions.Download
Relations between Early Regulatory Disorders and Maternal Play Strategies
Authors: Helene Gudi
Self-regulation, a complex construct, has been defined as the infants' growing capacities to calm on their own, tolerate frustrations, adapt to transitions, initate and cease activities according to situational demands, modulate their state of arousal, and regulate their emotions and behaviors.Download
Learning from mother's face
Authors: Margarete I. Bolten, Silvia Schneider
An experimental examination of the transgenerational transmission of anxiety.Download
Partners in Dialogue - A Single Case Study Referring to the Development of Spoken and Sign Language of a Child with CHARGE Syndrome
Authors: Ursula Horsch, Andrea Scheele
The increasing possibilities of medical care effects rare syndromes as reasons for severe disabilities. One of these rare syndromes is CHARGE Syndrome with aprevalence of 1:12 000. In Germany there is no research referring this syndrome.In the following, selected results of a twelve months long single casestudy referring dialogical development between a father and his 2.5 years old son with CHARGE Syndrome are presented. The focus is especially on the development of spoken and sign language within the dialogue between the two partners.
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Dialogue and Education in the Preverbal Period - A Study on the Situation of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Infants in the Early Educational Process
Authors: Ursula Horsch
From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their child. They introduce as well other people as the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogical way. Proceeding hand in hand they pass on basic dialogical competences. The research project Dialogic Development of Infants (Horsch et al. 2004 – 2007) addresses the broad dialogic development of parents and infants within the first 18 months of life. Our objective is to describe these preverbal dialogs.
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Dialogic Development of Infants Turns as basic patterns of the dialogue in the parent-infant-dyad
Authors: Research Project Horsch et al.
Abstract: From the very first day of life parents are in close contact with their child and introduce both - other people and the world to their newborn in a mutually dialogic way.Download
Unwilling Versus Unable - Infants’ Understanding of Intentional Action
Authors: Tanya Behne, Malinda Carpenter, Josep Call and Michael Tomasello
Abstract: Infants experienced a female adult handing them toys. Sometimes, however, the transaction failed, either because the adult was in various ways unwilling to give the toy (e.g., she teased the child with it or played with it herself) or else because she was unable to give it (e.g., she accidentally dropped it). Infants at 9, 12, and 18 months of age reacted with more impatience (e.g., reaching, looking away) when the adult was unwilling to give them the toy than when she was simply unable to give it. Six-month-olds, in contrast, showed no evidence of this differentiation. Because infants’ behavioral responses were appropriately adapted to different kinds of intentional actions, and because the adult’s actions sometimes produced results that did not match her goal (when having accidents or failed attempts), these findings provide especially rich evidence that infants first begin to understand goal-directed action at around 9 months of age.Download
A micro-analytic evaluation of parents watching a nondiagnostic ultrasound-based video of their fetus at mid-gestation
Authors: Stadlmayr W., Boukydis C., Bichsel S. et.al.
How pregnant women in difficult psycho-social circumstances experience foetal ultra-sound exams has been used for counselling1. Few studies have addressed the parental interaction, i.e. the couples’ behaviour while watching their fetus during US examinations.Download
A Study on Designer’s Mental Process of Information Categorization in the Early Stages of Design
Authors: Jieun Kim, Carole Bouchard, Jean-Francois Omhover, Ameziane Aoussat, Laurence Moscardini, Aline Chevalier, Charles Tijus, Francois Buron
Paper at ISADR (International Association of Societies of Design Research) 2009, Seoul, KoreaDownload
This research explores how designers mentally categorize design information during early sketching in the early stages of design. With the purpose of identifying various types of mental information and related cognitive operations, the empirical study has been conducted with 8 experienced product designers through the concurrent verbalization. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results is also presented.
Context dependent gender role self-concept activation
Authors: Ursula Athenstaedt
Abstract: The research investigated changes of gender role self-concept (GRS) in dependence of situational aspects and, additionally, its relevance for communication behavior. GRS is defined as the amount of self-ascribed attributes and behaviors that are assumed to be more typical for men or women...Download
ADHS - Eine Studie mit Müttern von Kindern mit und ohne ADHS
Authors: Iris Shilo and Anat Zaidman-Zait
(ADHD Symptoms, Inhibitory Control and Parenting among Mothers of Children with and without ADHD)Download
Erziehung ist eine der komplexen Aufgaben des Erwachsenenalters, die kognitive, emotionale und behaviorale Bemühungen erfordert. Belskys Prozessmodell identifiziert drei Bereiche von Determinanten der elterlichen Funktion: die persönlichen psychologischen Ressourcen der Eltern, die kontextuellen Quellen von Stress und Unterstützung und die Merkmale des Kindes.
In letzter Zeit gab es eine verstärkte Forschung über elterliche kognitive und affektive Funktionen als Determinanten des Erziehungsverhaltens.
Eltern-ADHS-Symptome sind mit einer Vielzahl von Erziehungsschwierigkeiten verbunden.
Im Zusammenhang mit hochgradiger ADHS-Vererbung ist es wahrscheinlich, dass bei Eltern mit erhöhten ADHS-Symptomen Erziehungsherausforderungen auf das Vorhandensein von ADHS-Symptomen bei ihren Kindern zurückzuführen sind.
Interaktionsmuster und nonverbale Kommunikation psychisch auffälliger Kinder mit einem Therapiehund
Authors: Prothmann A., Albrecht K., Dietrich S., Hornfeck U., Stieber S. und Ettrich C.
Kommunikation und Interaktion spielen bei psychischen Störungen eine zentrale Rolle. Dabei sind nonverbale Interaktionsmerkmale so bedeutsam wie Sprachzeichen, unterliegen aber bedeutend weniger manipulativen Einflüssen als verbale Kommunikation. Da Kinder eine starke natürliche Affinität zu Tieren haben und mit diesen überwiegend nonverbal über Mimik, Gestik, Körperhaltung und Stimmmodulation interagieren, bietet sich die Möglichkeit, den Einfluss psychischer Störungen auf die nonverbalen Kommunikationsfertigkeiten direkt zu beobachten.Download