Combine Measured Values and Observation Data

What is Mangold DataView 

DataView is a software program to visualize and work with structured numeric data. It's aim is to turn data into meaning.

Import data from various sources, such as CSV files, professional EEG equipment, physiological measurements or data from other acquisition systems.

The combination of measured values and observation data creates the context in which you can understand the true meaning of both data sources.

DataView's Benefits

Only DataView allows to time-sync observational data with measurements and thus helps unveiling the raw data meaning.

  • Combine Qualitative and Quantitative data
  • Import almost any structured numeric data
  • Connects automatically to Mangold INTERACT, LogSquare and MangoldVision and synchronizes video and data in time 
  • Integrated programming environment for writing project individual data analysis and data management routines
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Physiology + Behavior = True Meaning

Combine Physiological and Observational Data

Watch this video and learn how feeds from different video cameras, eye tracking information and EEG measurements can easily be integrated and analyzed

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Mangold DataView Software Visualizing Various Physiological Measurements

Examples of Interesting Physiological Measurements

GSR - Galvanic Skin Response

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA) or Skin Conductance Response (SCR), is a physiological phenomenon that reflects changes in the electrical conductance of the skin in response to various stimuli, both internal and external. 

It is often used as an indicator of emotional and psychological arousal.

The human skin is equipped with sweat glands that are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which consists of two branches: the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. 

The sympathetic nervous system is particularly involved in the body's "fight or flight" response, which is activated during situations of stress, excitement, or anxiety. When the sympathetic nervous system is activated, it causes the sweat glands to release sweat, leading to changes in the skin's electrical conductance.

Galvanic skin response is measured using electrodes that are typically placed on the surface of the skin, usually on the fingers or palms. 

These electrodes pass a small electrical current through the skin and measure the resulting changes in skin conductance.

Understanding Galvanic Skin Response involves several key factors:

  • Sweat Gland Activity: The primary factor contributing to changes in skin conductance is the activity of sweat glands. When the sympathetic nervous system is activated due to emotional or physiological arousal, the sweat glands secrete sweat onto the skin's surface. Sweat contains electrolytes, such as sodium and chloride ions, which increase the skin's electrical conductance.
  • Electrolyte Concentration: The conductive properties of the skin are influenced by the concentration of electrolytes in the sweat. The greater the amount of sweat being produced, the higher the concentration of electrolytes, and subsequently, the higher the skin's electrical conductance.
  • Sympathetic Nervous System Activity: The sympathetic nervous system's activation is closely linked to emotional responses, stress, and other stimuli that trigger the "fight or flight" response. This activation leads to the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine, which affect the activity of sweat glands.
  • Psychological Arousal: Changes in Galvanic Skin Response are often interpreted as indicators of psychological arousal. These changes can be seen in response to emotional experiences, stressors, excitement, anxiety, and other stimuli that elicit a sympathetic nervous system response.
  • Measurement: The electrical conductance of the skin is measured using electrodes that send a small, safe electrical current through the skin. The resulting changes in conductance are captured and can be visualized on a graph known as an electrodermal activity (EDA) trace.

In summary, Galvanic Skin Response is a physiological phenomenon that reflects changes in skin conductance due to the activity of sweat glands, influenced by the sympathetic nervous system's response to various stimuli. It is a valuable tool in psychology and physiology research for assessing emotional and psychological arousal.

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HRV - Heart Rate Variability

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) refers to the variation in the time interval between successive heartbeats, also known as R-R intervals, which are measured from the peak of one heartbeat to the peak of the next. 

HRV is an important physiological parameter that reflects the dynamic balance between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides insights into the adaptability and regulation of the cardiovascular system.

The autonomic nervous system consists of two main branches:

Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS): This branch is responsible for the "fight or flight" response and is associated with physiological arousal, stress, and the mobilization of energy resources. It increases heart rate and prepares the body for action.

Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS): This branch is responsible for the "rest and digest" response and promotes relaxation, recovery, and energy conservation. It decreases heart rate and supports activities like digestion and recovery.

Understanding Heart Rate Variability involves several key factors:

  • Sinus Node Activity: The sinoatrial (SA) node, often referred to as the "natural pacemaker" of the heart, generates electrical signals that initiate each heartbeat. However, the time interval between consecutive beats is not perfectly constant due to the influence of the autonomic nervous system.
  • Autonomic Nervous System Influence: The balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity modulates the heart rate and leads to variability in the R-R intervals. When the sympathetic nervous system is dominant, the heart rate increases, and R-R intervals become shorter. Conversely, when the parasympathetic nervous system is dominant, the heart rate decreases, and R-R intervals become longer.
  • Frequency Domain Analysis: HRV is often analyzed in the frequency domain, which involves decomposing the HRV signal into different frequency components. The two primary frequency components are:
  • High-Frequency (HF) Component: This component reflects the parasympathetic activity and is associated with rapid, short-term fluctuations in heart rate, often related to breathing patterns.
  • Low-Frequency (LF) Component: This component reflects a combination of both sympathetic and parasympathetic activity and is influenced by both short-term and long-term variations in heart rate.
  • Clinical and Research Applications: HRV has been widely studied for its potential as a non-invasive marker of autonomic nervous system function and overall cardiovascular health. It has been linked to various physiological and psychological conditions, such as stress, anxiety, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes.
  • Heart Rate Variability Analysis: HRV analysis involves measuring the standard deviation of R-R intervals, calculating various time and frequency domain metrics, and utilizing mathematical algorithms to assess the complexity and variability of heart rate patterns over time.

In summary, Heart Rate Variability reflects the dynamic interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. By analyzing the variability in time intervals between successive heartbeats, HRV provides valuable insights into cardiovascular health, autonomic regulation, and physiological responses to stress and relaxation.

PPG - Photoplethysmography

Photoplethysmography, commonly referred to as PPG, is a non-invasive optical technique used to measure changes in blood volume within tissue, particularly in peripheral blood vessels. 

PPG is often utilized to monitor various physiological parameters, including heart rate, pulse rate, and blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). It involves the use of light to assess the pulsatile nature of blood flow in the microvascular bed beneath the skin.

Here's a scientific explanation of PPG:

  • Principle of PPG: Photoplethysmography operates on the principle that blood volume changes in tissue absorb and scatter light differently depending on the oxygenation state of the blood. When the heart beats, blood is pumped into the arteries, causing a temporary increase in blood volume within the arteries. This leads to variations in the amount of light absorbed or transmitted through the tissue.
  • Light Interaction with Blood: PPG typically uses a light source (usually a light-emitting diode or LED) to emit light into the tissue, and a photodetector to measure the intensity of the light that emerges from the tissue. Oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) have distinct absorption characteristics for different wavelengths of light, particularly in the red and infrared spectrum.
  • Arterial Pulsation: When the heart beats, it propels a wave of blood through the arteries. This pulsatile blood flow causes variations in the amount of light absorbed by the tissue. During systole (when the heart contracts), arterial blood volume increases, leading to a decrease in light transmission. During diastole (when the heart relaxes), blood volume decreases, resulting in increased light transmission. These variations in light intensity correspond to the pulsatile nature of blood flow.
  • Blood Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) Measurement: PPG can also be used to estimate blood oxygen saturation (SpO2). This is achieved by comparing the absorption of red and infrared light. Oxygenated blood absorbs less infrared light and more red light compared to deoxygenated blood. By analyzing the ratio of red to infrared light absorbed by the tissue, the device can estimate the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood.
  • Signal Processing and Analysis: The raw PPG signal obtained from the photodetector undergoes signal processing to remove noise and artifacts. Algorithms are applied to identify the pulsatile component of the signal and extract relevant physiological parameters, such as heart rate and SpO2.
  • Applications: PPG is widely used in medical and wearable devices for monitoring vital signs. It is found in pulse oximeters, which measure SpO2 and pulse rate, as well as in fitness trackers and smartwatches that monitor heart rate. PPG is also used for assessing vascular health and detecting certain conditions, such as arrhythmias and sleep apnea.mat in inspector

In summary, Photoplethysmography is an optical technique that utilizes the interaction between light and blood volume changes in tissue to measure physiological parameters like heart rate, pulse rate, and blood oxygen saturation. By analyzing variations in light absorption or transmission, PPG provides valuable information about blood flow and oxygenation in peripheral blood vessels.

IBI - Interbeat Interval

IBI stands for Interbeat Interval, and it refers to the time duration between successive heartbeats, also known as R-R intervals. The measurement of IBI is crucial in understanding heart rate variability (HRV) and assessing the rhythmic patterns of heartbeats. 

IBI data is commonly used in medical and physiological research to gain insights into the autonomic nervous system's activity, cardiovascular health, and various physiological conditions.

Here's a scientific explanation of IBI:

  • R-R Intervals and Heart Rate: The heart's activity is characterized by a repeating cycle of contractions (systole) and relaxations (diastole). The time between two consecutive systolic peaks, corresponding to the R-wave in an electrocardiogram (ECG), is called the R-R interval. The reciprocal of the R-R interval is the heart rate, expressed in beats per minute (bpm). Longer R-R intervals indicate slower heart rates, while shorter intervals indicate faster heart rates.
  • Physiological Regulation: The variability in IBI, known as heart rate variability (HRV), is influenced by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The ANS consists of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches, which control the heart's rate and rhythm. The balance between these branches affects IBI and reflects the body's ability to adapt to changing physiological and environmental conditions.
  • Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Modulation: The sympathetic nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response, leading to increased heart rate and decreased R-R intervals. The parasympathetic nervous system, on the other hand, is responsible for the "rest and digest" response, leading to decreased heart rate and increased R-R intervals. The dynamic interplay between these two branches results in the variability seen in IBI.
  • HRV Analysis: Analyzing IBI data provides insights into the autonomic control of heart rate. HRV analysis involves quantifying the variability between consecutive R-R intervals. Common measures include time domain parameters (e.g., standard deviation of R-R intervals) and frequency domain parameters (e.g., power spectral density analysis of IBI data).
  • Clinical and Research Applications: IBI and HRV analysis are used to assess cardiovascular health, stress levels, autonomic dysfunction, and overall well-being. Abnormalities in HRV patterns can be indicative of various conditions, including heart diseases, diabetes, and autonomic nervous system disorders.
  • Measurement Techniques: IBI is typically measured using ECG, which records the electrical activity of the heart. The R-R intervals are extracted from the ECG waveform, providing accurate timing information between heartbeats. Other techniques, such as photoplethysmography (PPG), can also be used to estimate IBI based on variations in blood volume.

In summary, Interbeat Interval (IBI) refers to the time duration between consecutive heartbeats, also known as R-R intervals. It plays a crucial role in assessing heart rate variability (HRV) and autonomic nervous system function. By analyzing IBI data, researchers and clinicians gain insights into cardiovascular health, stress levels, and autonomic control of the heart's rate and rhythm.

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